draft-ietf-weirds-bootstrap-05.txt   draft-ietf-weirds-bootstrap-06.txt 
Network Working Group M. Blanchet Network Working Group M. Blanchet
Internet-Draft G. Leclanche Internet-Draft G. Leclanche
Intended status: Standards Track Viagenie Intended status: Standards Track Viagenie
Expires: March 1, 2015 August 28, 2014 Expires: March 8, 2015 September 4, 2014
Finding the Authoritative Registration Data (RDAP) Service Finding the Authoritative Registration Data (RDAP) Service
draft-ietf-weirds-bootstrap-05.txt draft-ietf-weirds-bootstrap-06.txt
Abstract Abstract
This document specifies a method to find which Registration Data This document specifies a method to find which Registration Data
Access Protocol (RDAP) server is authoritative to answer queries for Access Protocol (RDAP) server is authoritative to answer queries for
a requested scope, such as domain names, IP addresses or Autonomous a requested scope, such as domain names, IP addresses or Autonomous
System numbers. System numbers.
Status of This Memo Status of This Memo
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Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/. Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on March 1, 2015. This Internet-Draft will expire on March 8, 2015.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2014 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2014 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
Provisions Relating to IETF Documents Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
(http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
publication of this document. Please review these documents publication of this document. Please review these documents
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5.1. IPv4 Address Space RDAP Bootstrap Registry . . . . . . . 6 5.1. IPv4 Address Space RDAP Bootstrap Registry . . . . . . . 6
5.2. IPv6 Address Space RDAP Registry . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 5.2. IPv6 Address Space RDAP Registry . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
5.3. Autonomous Systems RDAP Bootstrap Registry . . . . . . . 8 5.3. Autonomous Systems RDAP Bootstrap Registry . . . . . . . 8
6. Entity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 6. Entity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
7. Non-existent Entries or RDAP URL Values . . . . . . . . . . . 10 7. Non-existent Entries or RDAP URL Values . . . . . . . . . . . 10
8. Deployment and Implementation Considerations . . . . . . . . 10 8. Deployment and Implementation Considerations . . . . . . . . 10
9. Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 9. Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
10. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 10. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
11. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 11. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
12. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 12. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
13. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 13. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
13.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 13.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
13.2. Non-Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 13.2. Non-Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
Querying and retrieving registration data from registries are defined Querying and retrieving registration data from registries are defined
in the Registration Data Access Protocol(RDAP)[I-D.ietf-weirds-rdap-q in the Registration Data Access Protocol(RDAP) [I-D.ietf-weirds-rdap-
uery][I-D.ietf-weirds-using-http][I-D.ietf-weirds-json-response]. query][I-D.ietf-weirds-using-http][I-D.ietf-weirds-json-response].
These documents do not specify where to send the queries. This These documents do not specify where to send the queries. This
document specifies a method to find which server is authoritative to document specifies a method to find which server is authoritative to
answer queries for the requested scope. answer queries for the requested scope.
The proposed mechanism is based on the fact that allocation data for The proposed mechanism is based on the fact that allocation data for
domain names and IP addresses are maintained by IANA, are publicly domain names and IP addresses are maintained by IANA, are publicly
available and are in a structured format. The mechanism assumes some available and are in a structured format. The mechanism assumes some
data structure within these registries and request IANA to create data structure within these registries and request IANA to create
these registries for the specific purpose of RDAP use, herein named these registries for the specific purpose of RDAP use, herein named
RDAP Bootstrap registries. An RDAP client fetches the RDAP Bootstrap RDAP Bootstrap registries. An RDAP client fetches the RDAP Bootstrap
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query base URL. query base URL.
2. Conventions Used In This Document 2. Conventions Used In This Document
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119]. document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].
3. Structure of RDAP Bootstrap Registries 3. Structure of RDAP Bootstrap Registries
The RDAP Bootstrap Registries are implemented as JSON [RFC7159] The RDAP Bootstrap Registries are made available as JSON [RFC7159]
objects. A registry starts with metadata such as a version id objects. The JSON registry output starts with metadata such as a
identified as a timestamp of the publication date of the registry and version id identified as a timestamp of the publication date of the
some defaults values. Then the "services" element is an array of registry and some defaults values. Then the "services" element is an
arrays. Each second level array contains two elements, each of them array of arrays. Each second level array contains two elements, each
being an array (third-level arrays). The first third-level array of them being an array (third-level arrays). The first third-level
contains all entries that have the same set of base RDAP URLs, as array contains all entries that have the same set of base RDAP URLs,
strings, arrays, or integers. The second third-level array contains as strings, arrays, or integers. The second third-level array
the list of base RDAP URLs usable for the entries found in the first contains the list of base RDAP URLs usable for the entries found in
third-level array. There is no assumption of sorting at the first- the first third-level array. There is no assumption of sorting at
level arrays. The two arrays found in each second-level array MUST the first-level arrays. The two arrays found in each second-level
appear in the correct order: array of entries first, then array of array MUST appear in the correct order: array of entries first, then
base RDAP URLs. An example structure of a JSON RDAP Bootstrap array of base RDAP URLs. An example structure of the JSON output of
Registry is illustrated: a RDAP Bootstrap Registry is illustrated:
{ {
"rdap_bootstrap": { "rdap_bootstrap": {
"version": "1.0", "version": "1.0",
"publication": "YYYY-MM-DDTHH:MM:SSZ", "publication": "YYYY-MM-DDTHH:MM:SSZ",
"description": "RDAP Bootstrap file for example registries." "description": "RDAP Bootstrap file for example registries.",
"services": [ "services": [
[ [
["entry1", "entry2", "entry3"], ["entry1", "entry2", "entry3"],
[ [
"https://registry.example.com/myrdap/", "https://registry.example.com/myrdap/",
"http://registry.example.com/myrdap/" "http://registry.example.com/myrdap/"
] ]
], ],
[ [
["entry4"], ["entry4"],
[ [
"http://example.org/" "http://example.org/"
] ]
] ]
] ]
} }
} }
The version corresponds to the format version of the registry. This The "version" corresponds to the format version of the registry.
specification defines "1.0". This specification defines "1.0".
The syntax of "publication" value conforms to the Internet date/time The syntax of "publication" value conforms to the Internet date/time
format [RFC3339]. format [RFC3339].
The optional "description" string can contain a comment regarding the
content of the bootstrap object.
Per [RFC7258], in each array of base RDAP URLs, the secure version of Per [RFC7258], in each array of base RDAP URLs, the secure version of
the transport protocol SHOULD be first. Base RDAP URLs are likely to the transport protocol SHOULD be first. Base RDAP URLs MUST have a
have a trailing "/" character because they are aggregated to the trailing "/" character because they are concatenated to the various
various segments defined in [I-D.ietf-weirds-rdap-query]. segments defined in [I-D.ietf-weirds-rdap-query].
JSON names MUST follow format recommendations of JSON names MUST follow format recommendations of
[I-D.ietf-weirds-using-http]. Any unknown or unspecified JSON object [I-D.ietf-weirds-using-http]. Any unknown or unspecified JSON object
properties or values should be ignored by implementers. properties or values should be ignored by implementers.
Internationalized Domain Names labels used as keys or base RDAP URLs Internationalized Domain Names labels used as keys or base RDAP URLs
in the registries defined in this document MUST be only represented in the registries defined in this document MUST be only represented
using their A-Label form as defined in [RFC5890]. using their A-Label form as defined in [RFC5890].
All Domain Names labels used as keys or base RDAP URLs in the All Domain Names labels used as keys or base RDAP URLs in the
registries defined in this document MUST be only represented in registries defined in this document MUST be only represented in
lowercase. lowercase.
4. Domain Name RDAP Bootstrap Registry 4. Domain Name RDAP Bootstrap Registry
This registry contains domain labels entries attached to the root, The JSON output of this registry contains domain labels entries
grouped by base RDAP URLs, as shown in this example. attached to the root, grouped by base RDAP URLs, as shown in this
example.
{ {
"rdap_bootstrap": { "rdap_bootstrap": {
"version": "1.0", "version": "1.0",
"publication": "YYYY-MM-DDTHH:MM:SSZ", "publication": "YYYY-MM-DDTHH:MM:SSZ",
"services": [ "services": [
[ [
["net", "com"], ["net", "com"],
[ [
"https://registry.example.com/myrdap/" "https://registry.example.com/myrdap/"
] ]
], ],
[ [
["org", "mytld"], ["org", "mytld"],
[ [
"http://example.org/" "http://example.org/"
] ]
], ],
[ [
["mytld2"], ["xn--zckzah"],
[ [
"https://example.net/rdapmytld2/", "https://example.net/rdapxn--zckzah/",
"http://example.net/rdapmytld2/" "http://example.net/rdapxn--zckzah/"
] ]
] ]
] ]
} }
} }
The domain names authoritative registration data service is found by The domain names authoritative registration data service is found by
doing the longest match of the target domain name with the domain doing the longest match of the target domain name with the domain
values in the arrays in the IANA Domain Name RDAP Bootstrap Registry. values in the arrays in the IANA Domain Name RDAP Bootstrap Registry.
This is a string search of the longest match starting from the end of This is a string search of the longest match starting from the end of
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addresses are converted in binary form and then the binary strings addresses are converted in binary form and then the binary strings
are compared to find the longest match. The values contained in the are compared to find the longest match. The values contained in the
second element of the array are the base RDAP URLs as described in second element of the array are the base RDAP URLs as described in
[I-D.ietf-weirds-rdap-query]. The longest match method enables [I-D.ietf-weirds-rdap-query]. The longest match method enables
covering prefixes of a larger address space pointing to one base RDAP covering prefixes of a larger address space pointing to one base RDAP
URL while more specific prefixes within the covering prefix being URL while more specific prefixes within the covering prefix being
served by another base RDAP URL. served by another base RDAP URL.
5.1. IPv4 Address Space RDAP Bootstrap Registry 5.1. IPv4 Address Space RDAP Bootstrap Registry
This registry contains IPv4 prefix entries, specified in CIDR format The JSON output of this registry contains IPv4 prefix entries,
and grouped by RDAP URLs, as shown in this example. specified in CIDR format and grouped by RDAP URLs, as shown in this
example.
{ {
"rdap_bootstrap": { "rdap_bootstrap": {
"version": "1.0", "version": "1.0",
"publication": "YYYY-MM-DDTHH:MM:SSZ", "publication": "YYYY-MM-DDTHH:MM:SSZ",
"services": [ "services": [
[ [
["1.0.0.0/8", "192.0.0.0/8"], ["1.0.0.0/8", "192.0.0.0/8"],
[ [
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array, which is an array of base RDAP URLs valid for this entry. The array, which is an array of base RDAP URLs valid for this entry. The
client chooses one of the base URLs from this array; in this example client chooses one of the base URLs from this array; in this example
it chooses the only one available, "http://example.org/". The it chooses the only one available, "http://example.org/". The
{resource} specified in [I-D.ietf-weirds-rdap-query] is then appended {resource} specified in [I-D.ietf-weirds-rdap-query] is then appended
to the base URL to complete the query. The complete query is then to the base URL to complete the query. The complete query is then
"https://example.org/ip/192.0.2.0/24". This example is not "https://example.org/ip/192.0.2.0/24". This example is not
normative. normative.
5.2. IPv6 Address Space RDAP Registry 5.2. IPv6 Address Space RDAP Registry
This registry contains IPv6 prefix entries, using [RFC4291] text The JSON output of this registry contains IPv6 prefix entries, using
representation of address prefixes format, grouped by base RDAP URLs, [RFC4291] text representation of address prefixes format, grouped by
as shown in this example. base RDAP URLs, as shown in this example.
{ {
"rdap_bootstrap": { "rdap_bootstrap": {
"version": "1.0", "version": "1.0",
"publication": "YYYY-MM-DDTHH:MM:SSZ", "publication": "YYYY-MM-DDTHH:MM:SSZ",
"services": [ "services": [
[ [
["2001:0200::/23", "2001:db8::/32"], ["2001:0200::/23", "2001:db8::/32"],
[ [
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this array; in this example it chooses "https://example.net/ this array; in this example it chooses "https://example.net/
rdaprir2/" because it's the secure version of the protocol. The rdaprir2/" because it's the secure version of the protocol. The
segment specified in [I-D.ietf-weirds-rdap-query] is then appended to segment specified in [I-D.ietf-weirds-rdap-query] is then appended to
the base URL to complete the query. The complete query is therefore the base URL to complete the query. The complete query is therefore
"https://example.net/rdaprir2/ip/2001:0200:1000::/48". If the server "https://example.net/rdaprir2/ip/2001:0200:1000::/48". If the server
does not answer, the client can then use another URL prefix from the does not answer, the client can then use another URL prefix from the
array. This example is not normative. array. This example is not normative.
5.3. Autonomous Systems RDAP Bootstrap Registry 5.3. Autonomous Systems RDAP Bootstrap Registry
This registry contains Autonomous Systems Number Ranges entries, The JSON output of this contains Autonomous Systems Number Ranges
grouped by base RDAP URLs, as shown in this example. The first entries, grouped by base RDAP URLs, as shown in this example. The
element of each second-level array is an array containing the list of first element of each second-level array is an array containing the
AS numbers served by the base RDAP URLs found in the second element. list of AS numbers served by the base RDAP URLs found in the second
When an element of the AS Numbers array is an array with two AS element. When an element of the AS Numbers array is an array with
numbers, then it represents the range of AS Numbers between the two two AS numbers, then it represents the range of AS Numbers between
elements of this array. the two elements of this array.
{ {
"rdap_bootstrap": { "rdap_bootstrap": {
"version": "1.0", "version": "1.0",
"publication": "YYYY-MM-DDTHH:MM:SSZ", "publication": "YYYY-MM-DDTHH:MM:SSZ",
"services": [ "services": [
[ [
[2045], [2045],
[ [
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The registries may not contain the requested value or the base RDAP The registries may not contain the requested value or the base RDAP
URL value may be empty. In these cases, there is no known RDAP URL value may be empty. In these cases, there is no known RDAP
server for that requested value and the client SHOULD provide an server for that requested value and the client SHOULD provide an
appropriate error message to the user. appropriate error message to the user.
8. Deployment and Implementation Considerations 8. Deployment and Implementation Considerations
This method relies on the fact that RDAP clients are fetching the This method relies on the fact that RDAP clients are fetching the
IANA registries to then find the servers locally. Clients SHOULD NOT IANA registries to then find the servers locally. Clients SHOULD NOT
fetch every time the registry. Clients SHOULD cache the registry, fetch the registry every time. Clients SHOULD cache the registry,
but use underlying protocol signalling, such as HTTP Expires header but use underlying protocol signalling, such as HTTP Expires header
field [RFC7234], to identify when it is time to refresh the cached field [RFC7234], to identify when it is time to refresh the cached
registry. registry.
If the query data does not match any entry in the client cached If the query data does not match any entry in the client cached
registry, then the client may implement various methods, such as the registry, then the client may implement various methods, such as the
following: following:
o In the case of a domain object to be RDAP queried, the client may o In the case of a domain object to be RDAP queried, the client may
first query the DNS to see if the respective entry has been first query the DNS to see if the respective entry has been
delegated or if it is a mistyped information by the user. The DNS delegated or if it is a mistyped information by the user. The DNS
query could be to fetch the NS records for the TLD domain. If the query could be to fetch the NS records for the TLD domain. If the
DNS answer is negative, then there is no need to fetch the new DNS answer is negative, then there is no need to fetch the new
version of the registry. However, if the DNS answer is positive, version of the registry. However, if the DNS answer is positive,
this may mean that the currently cached registry is no more this may mean that the currently cached registry is no more
current. The client could then fetch the registry, parse and then current. The client could then fetch the registry, parse and then
do the normal matching as specified above. This method may not do the normal matching as specified above. This method may not
work for all types of RDAP objects. work for all types of RDAP objects.
o If the client knows the existence of a RDAP aggregator or o If the client knows the existence of a RDAP aggregator or
redirector and trust that service, then it could send the query to redirector and trusts that service, then it could send the query
the redirector, which would redirect the client if it knows the to the redirector, which would redirect the client if it knows the
authoritative server that client has not found. authoritative server that client has not found.
IANA should make sure that the service of those registries is able to
cope with a larger demand and should take appropriate measures such
as caching and load balancing.
This specification does not assume while not prohibiting how some This specification does not assume while not prohibiting how some
authorities of registration data may work together on sharing their authorities of registration data may work together on sharing their
information for a common service, including mutual information for a common service, including mutual redirection
redirection[I-D.ietf-weirds-redirects]. [I-D.ietf-weirds-redirects].
When a new object is allocated, such as a new AS range, a new TLD or
a new IP address range, there is no garantee that this new object
will have an entry in the corresponding bootstrap rdap registry,
since the setup of the RDAP server for this new entry may become live
and registered later. Therefore, the clients should expect that even
if an object, such as TLD, IP address range or AS range is allocated,
the existence of the entry in the corresponding bootstrap registry is
not garanteed.
9. Limitations 9. Limitations
This method does not provide a direct way to find authoritative RDAP This method does not provide a direct way to find authoritative RDAP
servers: servers for any other objects than the ones described in this
document. In particular, the following objects are not bootstrapped
with the method described in this document:
o for entities o for entities
o for queries using search patterns that do not contain a o for queries using search patterns that do not contain a
terminating string that matches some entries in the registries terminating string that matches some entries in the registries
o for nameservers
o for help
10. Security Considerations 10. Security Considerations
By providing a bootstrap method to find RDAP servers, this document By providing a bootstrap method to find RDAP servers, this document
helps making sure that the end-users will get the RDAP data from helps making sure that the end-users will get the RDAP data from
authoritative source, instead of from rogue sources. The method authoritative source, instead of from rogue sources. The method
itself has the same security properties as the RDAP protocols itself has the same security properties as the RDAP protocols
themselves. The transport used to access the registries could be themselves. The transport used to access the registries could be
more secure by using TLS [RFC5246] if IANA supports it. more secure by using TLS [RFC5246] if IANA supports it.
11. IANA Considerations 11. IANA Considerations
IANA is requested to do the following: IANA is requested to do the following:
o Create a new registry "IPv4 Address Space RDAP Bootstrap Service" o Create a new registry "IPv4 Address Space RDAP Bootstrap Service"
in the JSON format, as shown above. and make it available in the JSON format, as shown above.
o Create a new registry "IPv6 Address Space RDAP Bootstrap Service" o Create a new registry "IPv6 Address Space RDAP Bootstrap Service"
in the JSON format, as shown above. and make it available in the JSON format, as shown above.
o Create a new registry "Autonomous System Number Space RDAP o Create a new registry "Autonomous System Number Space RDAP
Bootstrap Service" in the JSON format, as shown above. Bootstrap Service" and make it available in the JSON format, as
shown above.
o Create a new registry "Domain Name Space RDAP Bootstrap Service" o Create a new registry "Domain Name Space RDAP Bootstrap Service"
in the JSON format, as shown above. and make it available in the JSON format, as shown above.
It is envisioned that these new registries will have similar entries It is envisioned that these new registries will have similar entries
than the corresponding IANA allocation registries, such as than the corresponding IANA allocation registries, such as [ipv4reg],
[ipv4reg],[ipv6reg],[asreg], [domainreg], and possibly similar [ipv6reg], [asreg], [domainreg], and possibly similar registration
registration policies. However, the registration policies for the policies. Given that the data required by RDAP clients is limited
new registries of this document are left to IANA. compared to the content of the existing corresponding registries, and
given that this data has to be made available in a JSON format using
a specific key/value structure, this document is not defining an
extension of the existing IANA allocation registries. The
registration policies for the new registries of this document are
left to IANA.
The registries may be maintained in IANA own format, such as XML. The registries may be maintained in IANA own format, such as XML.
However, the registry should be available in the JSON format, and However, each registry MUST be available in the JSON format defined
optionally in other formats such as XML. in this document, and optionally in other formats such as XML.
IANA should make sure that the service of those registries is able to
cope with a larger demand and should take appropriate measures such
as caching, load balancing and redundancy.
The base URL of these registries is not defined in this document and
is left to IANA.
The HTTP Content-Type returned to clients accessing the JSON output
of the registries MUST be "application/json" as defined in [RFC7159].
12. Acknowledgements 12. Acknowledgements
The weirds working group had multiple discussions on this topic, The weirds working group had multiple discussions on this topic,
including a session during IETF 84, where various methods such as in- including a session during IETF 84, where various methods such as in-
DNS and others were debated. The idea of using IANA registries was DNS and others were debated. The idea of using IANA registries was
discovered by the editor during discussions with his colleagues as discovered by the editor during discussions with his colleagues as
well as by a comment from Andy Newton. All the people involved in well as by a comment from Andy Newton. All the people involved in
these discussions are herein acknowledged. Linlin Zhou, Jean- these discussions are herein acknowledged. Linlin Zhou, Jean-
Philippe Dionne, John Levine, Kim Davies, Ernie Dainow, Scott Philippe Dionne, John Levine, Kim Davies, Ernie Dainow, Scott
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