draft-ietf-weirds-bootstrap-06.txt   draft-ietf-weirds-bootstrap-07.txt 
Network Working Group M. Blanchet Network Working Group M. Blanchet
Internet-Draft G. Leclanche Internet-Draft G. Leclanche
Intended status: Standards Track Viagenie Intended status: Standards Track Viagenie
Expires: March 8, 2015 September 4, 2014 Expires: April 2, 2015 September 29, 2014
Finding the Authoritative Registration Data (RDAP) Service Finding the Authoritative Registration Data (RDAP) Service
draft-ietf-weirds-bootstrap-06.txt draft-ietf-weirds-bootstrap-07.txt
Abstract Abstract
This document specifies a method to find which Registration Data This document specifies a method to find which Registration Data
Access Protocol (RDAP) server is authoritative to answer queries for Access Protocol (RDAP) server is authoritative to answer queries for
a requested scope, such as domain names, IP addresses or Autonomous a requested scope, such as domain names, IP addresses or Autonomous
System numbers. System numbers.
Status of This Memo Status of This Memo
skipping to change at page 1, line 33 skipping to change at page 1, line 33
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/. Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."
This Internet-Draft will expire on March 8, 2015. This Internet-Draft will expire on April 2, 2015.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2014 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2014 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
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Provisions Relating to IETF Documents Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
(http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
publication of this document. Please review these documents publication of this document. Please review these documents
carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must
include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
described in the Simplified BSD License. described in the Simplified BSD License.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2. Conventions Used In This Document . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2. Conventions Used In This Document . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3. Structure of RDAP Bootstrap Registries . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3. Structure of RDAP Bootstrap Service Registries . . . . . . . 3
4. Domain Name RDAP Bootstrap Registry . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 4. Domain Name RDAP Bootstrap Service Registry . . . . . . . . . 4
5. Internet Numbers RDAP Bootstrap Registries . . . . . . . . . 6 5. Internet Numbers RDAP Bootstrap Service Registries . . . . . 6
5.1. IPv4 Address Space RDAP Bootstrap Registry . . . . . . . 6 5.1. IPv4 Address Space RDAP Bootstrap Service Registry . . . 6
5.2. IPv6 Address Space RDAP Registry . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 5.2. IPv6 Address Space RDAP Bootstrap Service Registry . . . 7
5.3. Autonomous Systems RDAP Bootstrap Registry . . . . . . . 8 5.3. Autonomous Systems RDAP Bootstrap Service Registry . . . 8
6. Entity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 6. Entity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
7. Non-existent Entries or RDAP URL Values . . . . . . . . . . . 10 7. Non-existent Entries or RDAP URL Values . . . . . . . . . . . 10
8. Deployment and Implementation Considerations . . . . . . . . 10 8. Deployment and Implementation Considerations . . . . . . . . 10
9. Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 9. Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
10. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 10. Formal Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
11. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 10.1. Imported JSON Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
12. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 10.2. Registry Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
13. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 11. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
13.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 12. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
13.2. Non-Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 12.1. IPv4 Address Space RDAP Bootstrap Service Registry . . . 13
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 12.2. IPv6 Address Space RDAP Bootstrap Service Registry . . . 13
12.3. Autonomous System Number Space RDAP Bootstrap Service
Registry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
12.4. Domain Name Space RDAP Bootstrap Service Registry . . . 13
12.5. Policies and Additional Considerations . . . . . . . . . 14
13. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
14. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
14.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
14.2. Non-Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
Querying and retrieving registration data from registries are defined Querying and retrieving registration data from registries are defined
in the Registration Data Access Protocol(RDAP) [I-D.ietf-weirds-rdap- in the Registration Data Access Protocol (RDAP) [I-D.ietf-weirds-rdap
query][I-D.ietf-weirds-using-http][I-D.ietf-weirds-json-response]. -query][I-D.ietf-weirds-using-http][I-D.ietf-weirds-json-response].
These documents do not specify where to send the queries. This These documents do not specify where to send the queries. This
document specifies a method to find which server is authoritative to document specifies a method to find which server is authoritative to
answer queries for the requested scope. answer queries for the requested scope.
The proposed mechanism is based on the fact that allocation data for The proposed mechanism is based on the fact that allocation data for
domain names and IP addresses are maintained by IANA, are publicly domain names and IP addresses are maintained by IANA, are publicly
available and are in a structured format. The mechanism assumes some available and are in a structured format. The mechanism assumes some
data structure within these registries and request IANA to create data structure within these registries. This document requests IANA
these registries for the specific purpose of RDAP use, herein named to create these registries for the specific purpose of RDAP use,
RDAP Bootstrap registries. An RDAP client fetches the RDAP Bootstrap herein named RDAP Bootstrap Service registries. An RDAP client
registries, extract the data and then do a match with the query data fetches the RDAP Bootstrap Service registries, extracts the data and
to find the authoritative registration data server and appropriate then does a match with the query data to find the authoritative
query base URL. registration data server and appropriate query base URL.
2. Conventions Used In This Document 2. Conventions Used In This Document
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119]. document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].
3. Structure of RDAP Bootstrap Registries 3. Structure of RDAP Bootstrap Service Registries
The RDAP Bootstrap Registries are made available as JSON [RFC7159] The RDAP Bootstrap Service Registries are made available as JSON
objects. The JSON registry output starts with metadata such as a [RFC7159] objects. The JSON registry output starts with metadata
version id identified as a timestamp of the publication date of the such as a version identifier, a timestamp of the publication date of
registry and some defaults values. Then the "services" element is an the registry and a description. There exists a "services" element,
array of arrays. Each second level array contains two elements, each which is an array of arrays. Each second level array contains two
of them being an array (third-level arrays). The first third-level elements, each of them being an array (third-level arrays). The
array contains all entries that have the same set of base RDAP URLs, first third-level array, named 'Entry array', contains all entries
as strings, arrays, or integers. The second third-level array that have the same set of base RDAP URLs. The second third-level
contains the list of base RDAP URLs usable for the entries found in array, named 'Service URL array', contains the list of base RDAP URLs
the first third-level array. There is no assumption of sorting at usable for the entries found in the 'Entry array'. There is no
the first-level arrays. The two arrays found in each second-level assumption of sorting except that the two arrays found in each
array MUST appear in the correct order: array of entries first, then second-level array MUST appear in the correct order: 'Entry array'
array of base RDAP URLs. An example structure of the JSON output of first followed by 'Service URL array'. An example structure of the
a RDAP Bootstrap Registry is illustrated: JSON output of a RDAP Bootstrap Service Registry is illustrated:
{ {
"rdap_bootstrap": {
"version": "1.0", "version": "1.0",
"publication": "YYYY-MM-DDTHH:MM:SSZ", "publication": "YYYY-MM-DDTHH:MM:SSZ",
"description": "RDAP Bootstrap file for example registries.", "description": "Some text",
"services": [ "services": [
[ [
["entry1", "entry2", "entry3"], ["entry1", "entry2", "entry3"],
[ [
"https://registry.example.com/myrdap/", "https://registry.example.com/myrdap/",
"http://registry.example.com/myrdap/" "http://registry.example.com/myrdap/"
] ]
], ],
[ [
["entry4"], ["entry4"],
[ [
"http://example.org/" "http://example.org/"
] ]
] ]
] ]
}
} }
The formal syntax is described in Section 10.
The "version" corresponds to the format version of the registry. The "version" corresponds to the format version of the registry.
This specification defines "1.0". This specification defines "1.0".
The syntax of "publication" value conforms to the Internet date/time The syntax of "publication" value conforms to the Internet date/time
format [RFC3339]. format [RFC3339].
The optional "description" string can contain a comment regarding the The optional "description" string can contain a comment regarding the
content of the bootstrap object. content of the bootstrap object.
Per [RFC7258], in each array of base RDAP URLs, the secure version of Per [RFC7258], in each array of base RDAP URLs, the secure versions
the transport protocol SHOULD be first. Base RDAP URLs MUST have a of the transport protocol SHOULD be preferred and tried first. For
trailing "/" character because they are concatenated to the various example, if the base RDAP URLs array contain both https and http
segments defined in [I-D.ietf-weirds-rdap-query]. URLs, the bootstrap client SHOULD try the https version first.
JSON names MUST follow format recommendations of Base RDAP URLs MUST have a trailing "/" character because they are
concatenated to the various segments defined in
[I-D.ietf-weirds-rdap-query].
JSON names MUST follow the format recommendations of
[I-D.ietf-weirds-using-http]. Any unknown or unspecified JSON object [I-D.ietf-weirds-using-http]. Any unknown or unspecified JSON object
properties or values should be ignored by implementers. properties or values should be ignored by implementers.
Internationalized Domain Names labels used as keys or base RDAP URLs Internationalized Domain Names labels used as entries or base RDAP
in the registries defined in this document MUST be only represented URLs in the registries defined in this document MUST be only
using their A-Label form as defined in [RFC5890]. represented using their A-Label form as defined in [RFC5890].
All Domain Names labels used as keys or base RDAP URLs in the All Domain Names labels used as entries or base RDAP URLs in the
registries defined in this document MUST be only represented in registries defined in this document MUST be only represented in
lowercase. lowercase.
4. Domain Name RDAP Bootstrap Registry 4. Domain Name RDAP Bootstrap Service Registry
The JSON output of this registry contains domain labels entries The JSON output of this registry contains domain labels entries
attached to the root, grouped by base RDAP URLs, as shown in this attached to the root, grouped by base RDAP URLs, as shown in this
example. example.
{ {
"rdap_bootstrap": {
"version": "1.0", "version": "1.0",
"publication": "YYYY-MM-DDTHH:MM:SSZ", "publication": "YYYY-MM-DDTHH:MM:SSZ",
"description": "Some text",
"services": [ "services": [
[ [
["net", "com"], ["net", "com"],
[ [
"https://registry.example.com/myrdap/" "https://registry.example.com/myrdap/"
] ]
], ],
[ [
["org", "mytld"], ["org", "mytld"],
[ [
skipping to change at page 5, line 31 skipping to change at page 5, line 30
] ]
], ],
[ [
["xn--zckzah"], ["xn--zckzah"],
[ [
"https://example.net/rdapxn--zckzah/", "https://example.net/rdapxn--zckzah/",
"http://example.net/rdapxn--zckzah/" "http://example.net/rdapxn--zckzah/"
] ]
] ]
] ]
}
} }
The domain names authoritative registration data service is found by The domain names authoritative registration data service is found by
doing the longest match of the target domain name with the domain doing the label-wise longest match of the target domain name with the
values in the arrays in the IANA Domain Name RDAP Bootstrap Registry. domain values in the arrays in the IANA Domain Name RDAP Bootstrap
This is a string search of the longest match starting from the end of Service Registry. The values contained in the second element of the
the target name and the end of each value in the arrays. The values array are the valid base RDAP URLs as described in
contained in the second element of the array are the valid base RDAP [I-D.ietf-weirds-rdap-query].
URLs as described in [I-D.ietf-weirds-rdap-query].
For example, a domain RDAP query for a.b.example.com matches the com For example, a domain RDAP query for a.b.example.com matches the com
entry in one of the arrays of the registry. The base RDAP URL for entry in one of the arrays of the registry. The base RDAP URL for
this query is then taken from the second element of the array, which this query is then taken from the second element of the array, which
is an array of base RDAP URLs valid for this entry. The client is an array of base RDAP URLs valid for this entry. The client
chooses one of the base URLs from this array; in this example it chooses one of the base URLs from this array; in this example it
chooses the only one available, "https://registry.example.com/ chooses the only one available, "https://registry.example.com/
myrdap/". The segment specified in [I-D.ietf-weirds-rdap-query] is myrdap/". The segment specified in [I-D.ietf-weirds-rdap-query] is
then appended to the base URL to complete the query. The complete then appended to the base URL to complete the query. The complete
query is then "https://registry.example.com/myrdap/domain/ query is then "https://registry.example.com/myrdap/domain/
a.b.example.com". This example is not normative. a.b.example.com".
5. Internet Numbers RDAP Bootstrap Registries If a domain RDAP query for a.b.example.com matches both com and
example.com entries in the registry, then the longest match applies
and the example.com entry is used by the client.
5. Internet Numbers RDAP Bootstrap Service Registries
This section discusses IPv4 and IPv6 address space and autonomous This section discusses IPv4 and IPv6 address space and autonomous
system numbers. system numbers.
For IP address space, the authoritative registration data service is For IP address space, the authoritative registration data service is
found by doing a longest match of the target address with the values found by doing a longest match of the target address with the values
of the arrays in the corresponding Address Space RDAP Bootstrap of the arrays in the corresponding Address Space RDAP Bootstrap
registry. The longest match is done the same way as for routing: the Service registry. The longest match is done the same way as for
addresses are converted in binary form and then the binary strings routing: the addresses are converted in binary form and then the
are compared to find the longest match. The values contained in the binary strings are compared to find the longest match up to the
second element of the array are the base RDAP URLs as described in specified prefix length. The values contained in the second element
of the array are the base RDAP URLs as described in
[I-D.ietf-weirds-rdap-query]. The longest match method enables [I-D.ietf-weirds-rdap-query]. The longest match method enables
covering prefixes of a larger address space pointing to one base RDAP covering prefixes of a larger address space pointing to one base RDAP
URL while more specific prefixes within the covering prefix being URL while more specific prefixes within the covering prefix being
served by another base RDAP URL. served by another base RDAP URL.
5.1. IPv4 Address Space RDAP Bootstrap Registry 5.1. IPv4 Address Space RDAP Bootstrap Service Registry
The JSON output of this registry contains IPv4 prefix entries, The JSON output of this registry contains IPv4 prefix entries,
specified in CIDR format and grouped by RDAP URLs, as shown in this specified in CIDR format and grouped by RDAP URLs, as shown in this
example. example.
{ {
"rdap_bootstrap": {
"version": "1.0", "version": "1.0",
"publication": "YYYY-MM-DDTHH:MM:SSZ", "publication": "2024-01-07T10:11:12Z",
"description": "RDAP Bootstrap file for example registries.",
"services": [ "services": [
[ [
["1.0.0.0/8", "192.0.0.0/8"], ["1.0.0.0/8", "192.0.0.0/8"],
[ [
"https://rir1.example.com/myrdap/" "https://rir1.example.com/myrdap/"
] ]
], ],
[ [
["28.2.0.0/16", "192.0.2.0/24"], ["28.2.0.0/16", "192.0.2.0/24"],
[ [
skipping to change at page 7, line 31 skipping to change at page 7, line 30
] ]
], ],
[ [
["28.3.0.0/16"], ["28.3.0.0/16"],
[ [
"https://example.net/rdaprir2/", "https://example.net/rdaprir2/",
"http://example.net/rdaprir2/" "http://example.net/rdaprir2/"
] ]
] ]
] ]
}
} }
For example, a query for "192.0.2.0/24" matches the "192.0.0.0/8" For example, a query for "192.0.2.1/25" matches the "192.0.0.0/8"
entry and the "192.0.2.0/24" entry in the example registry above. entry and the "192.0.2.0/24" entry in the example registry above.
The latter is chosen by the client given the longest match. The base The latter is chosen by the client given the longest match. The base
RDAP URL for this query is then taken from the second element of the RDAP URL for this query is then taken from the second element of the
array, which is an array of base RDAP URLs valid for this entry. The array, which is an array of base RDAP URLs valid for this entry. The
client chooses one of the base URLs from this array; in this example client chooses one of the base URLs from this array; in this example
it chooses the only one available, "http://example.org/". The it chooses the only one available, "http://example.org/". The
{resource} specified in [I-D.ietf-weirds-rdap-query] is then appended {resource} specified in [I-D.ietf-weirds-rdap-query] is then appended
to the base URL to complete the query. The complete query is then to the base URL to complete the query. The complete query is then
"https://example.org/ip/192.0.2.0/24". This example is not "https://example.org/ip/192.0.2.1/25".
normative.
5.2. IPv6 Address Space RDAP Registry 5.2. IPv6 Address Space RDAP Bootstrap Service Registry
The JSON output of this registry contains IPv6 prefix entries, using The JSON output of this registry contains IPv6 prefix entries, using
[RFC4291] text representation of address prefixes format, grouped by [RFC4291] text representation of address prefixes format, grouped by
base RDAP URLs, as shown in this example. base RDAP URLs, as shown in this example.
{ {
"rdap_bootstrap": {
"version": "1.0", "version": "1.0",
"publication": "YYYY-MM-DDTHH:MM:SSZ", "publication": "2024-01-07T10:11:12Z",
"description": "RDAP Bootstrap file for example registries.",
"services": [ "services": [
[ [
["2001:0200::/23", "2001:db8::/32"], ["2001:0200::/23", "2001:db8::/32"],
[ [
"https://rir2.example.com/myrdap/" "https://rir2.example.com/myrdap/"
] ]
], ],
[ [
["2600::/16", "2100:ffff::/32"], ["2600::/16", "2100:ffff::/32"],
[ [
skipping to change at page 8, line 31 skipping to change at page 8, line 30
] ]
], ],
[ [
["2001:0200:1000::/28"], ["2001:0200:1000::/28"],
[ [
"https://example.net/rdaprir2/", "https://example.net/rdaprir2/",
"http://example.net/rdaprir2/" "http://example.net/rdaprir2/"
] ]
] ]
] ]
}
} }
For example, a query for "2001:0200:1000::/48" matches the For example, a query for "2001:0200:1000::/48" matches the
"2001:0200::/23" entry and the "2001:0200:1000::/28" entry in the "2001:0200::/23" entry and the "2001:0200:1000::/28" entry in the
example registry above. The latter is chosen by the client given the example registry above. The latter is chosen by the client given the
longest match. The base RDAP URL for this query is then taken from longest match. The base RDAP URL for this query is then taken from
the second element of the array, which is an array of base RDAP URLs the second element of the array, which is an array of base RDAP URLs
valid for this entry. The client chooses one of the base URLs from valid for this entry. The client chooses one of the base URLs from
this array; in this example it chooses "https://example.net/ this array; in this example it chooses "https://example.net/
rdaprir2/" because it's the secure version of the protocol. The rdaprir2/" because it's the secure version of the protocol. The
segment specified in [I-D.ietf-weirds-rdap-query] is then appended to segment specified in [I-D.ietf-weirds-rdap-query] is then appended to
the base URL to complete the query. The complete query is therefore the base URL to complete the query. The complete query is therefore
"https://example.net/rdaprir2/ip/2001:0200:1000::/48". If the server "https://example.net/rdaprir2/ip/2001:0200:1000::/48". If the server
does not answer, the client can then use another URL prefix from the does not answer, the client can then use another URL prefix from the
array. This example is not normative. array.
5.3. Autonomous Systems RDAP Bootstrap Registry 5.3. Autonomous Systems RDAP Bootstrap Service Registry
The JSON output of this contains Autonomous Systems Number Ranges The JSON output of this contains Autonomous Systems Number Ranges
entries, grouped by base RDAP URLs, as shown in this example. The entries, grouped by base RDAP URLs, as shown in this example. The
first element of each second-level array is an array containing the first element of each second-level array is an array containing the
list of AS numbers served by the base RDAP URLs found in the second list of AS number ranges served by the base RDAP URLs found in the
element. When an element of the AS Numbers array is an array with second element. The array always contains two AS numbers which
two AS numbers, then it represents the range of AS Numbers between represents the range of AS Numbers between the two elements of the
the two elements of this array. array. When the two AS numbers are identical, then it only refers to
that single AS number.
{ {
"rdap_bootstrap": {
"version": "1.0", "version": "1.0",
"publication": "YYYY-MM-DDTHH:MM:SSZ", "publication": "2024-01-07T10:11:12Z",
"description": "RDAP Bootstrap file for example registries.",
"services": [ "services": [
[ [
[2045], ["2045-2045"],
[ [
"https://rir3.example.com/myrdap/" "https://rir3.example.com/myrdap/"
] ]
], ],
[ [
[[10000, 12000], [300000, 400000]], ["10000-12000", "300000-400000"],
[ [
"http://example.org/" "http://example.org/"
] ]
], ],
[ [
[[64512, 65534]], ["64512-65534"],
[ [
"http://example.net/rdaprir2/", "http://example.net/rdaprir2/",
"https://example.net/rdaprir2/" "https://example.net/rdaprir2/"
] ]
] ]
] ]
}
} }
For example, a query for AS 65411 matches the [64512, 65534] entry in For example, a query for AS 65411 matches the 64512-65534 entry in
the example registry above. The base RDAP URL for this query is then the example registry above. The base RDAP URL for this query is then
taken from the second element of the array, which is an array of base taken from the second element of the array, which is an array of base
RDAP URLs valid for this entry. The client chooses one of the base RDAP URLs valid for this entry. The client chooses one of the base
URLs from this array; in this example it chooses URLs from this array; in this example it chooses
"https://example.net/rdaprir2/". The segment specified in "https://example.net/rdaprir2/". The segment specified in
[I-D.ietf-weirds-rdap-query] is then appended to the base URL to [I-D.ietf-weirds-rdap-query] is then appended to the base URL to
complete the query. The complete query is therefore complete the query. The complete query is therefore
"https://example.net/rdaprir2/autnum/65411". If the server does not "https://example.net/rdaprir2/autnum/65411". If the server does not
answer, the client can then use another URL prefix from the array. answer, the client can then use another URL prefix from the array.
This example is not normative.
6. Entity 6. Entity
Since there is no global namespace for entities, this document does Since there is no global namespace for entities, this document does
not describe how to find the authoritative RDAP server for entities. not describe how to find the authoritative RDAP server for entities.
It is possible however that, if the entity identifier was received It is possible however that, if the entity identifier was received
from a previous query, the same RDAP server could be queried for that from a previous query, the same RDAP server could be queried for that
entity or the entity identifier itself is a fully referenced URL that entity or the entity identifier itself is a fully referenced URL that
can be queried. can be queried.
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The registries may not contain the requested value or the base RDAP The registries may not contain the requested value or the base RDAP
URL value may be empty. In these cases, there is no known RDAP URL value may be empty. In these cases, there is no known RDAP
server for that requested value and the client SHOULD provide an server for that requested value and the client SHOULD provide an
appropriate error message to the user. appropriate error message to the user.
8. Deployment and Implementation Considerations 8. Deployment and Implementation Considerations
This method relies on the fact that RDAP clients are fetching the This method relies on the fact that RDAP clients are fetching the
IANA registries to then find the servers locally. Clients SHOULD NOT IANA registries to then find the servers locally. Clients SHOULD NOT
fetch the registry every time. Clients SHOULD cache the registry, fetch the registry on every RDAP request. Clients SHOULD cache the
but use underlying protocol signalling, such as HTTP Expires header registry, but use underlying protocol signalling, such as the HTTP
field [RFC7234], to identify when it is time to refresh the cached Expires header field [RFC7234], to identify when it is time to
registry. refresh the cached registry.
If the query data does not match any entry in the client cached If the query data does not match any entry in the client cached
registry, then the client may implement various methods, such as the registry, then the client may implement various methods, such as the
following: following:
o In the case of a domain object to be RDAP queried, the client may o In the case of a domain object, the client may first query the DNS
first query the DNS to see if the respective entry has been to see if the respective entry has been delegated or if it is a
delegated or if it is a mistyped information by the user. The DNS mistyped information by the user. The DNS query could be to fetch
query could be to fetch the NS records for the TLD domain. If the the NS records for the TLD domain. If the DNS answer is negative,
DNS answer is negative, then there is no need to fetch the new then there is no need to fetch the new version of the registry.
version of the registry. However, if the DNS answer is positive, However, if the DNS answer is positive, this may mean that the
this may mean that the currently cached registry is no more currently cached registry is no longer current. The client could
current. The client could then fetch the registry, parse and then then fetch the registry, parse and then do the normal matching as
do the normal matching as specified above. This method may not specified above. This method may not work for all types of RDAP
work for all types of RDAP objects. objects.
o If the client knows the existence of a RDAP aggregator or o If the client knows the existence of an RDAP aggregator or
redirector and trusts that service, then it could send the query redirector and trusts that service, then it could send the query
to the redirector, which would redirect the client if it knows the to the redirector, which would redirect the client if it knows the
authoritative server that client has not found. authoritative server that client has not found.
This specification does not assume while not prohibiting how some Some authorities of registration data may work together on sharing
authorities of registration data may work together on sharing their their information for a common service, including mutual redirection
information for a common service, including mutual redirection
[I-D.ietf-weirds-redirects]. [I-D.ietf-weirds-redirects].
When a new object is allocated, such as a new AS range, a new TLD or When a new object is allocated, such as a new AS range, a new TLD or
a new IP address range, there is no garantee that this new object a new IP address range, there is no guarantee that this new object
will have an entry in the corresponding bootstrap rdap registry, will have an entry in the corresponding bootstrap RDAP registry,
since the setup of the RDAP server for this new entry may become live since the setup of the RDAP server for this new entry may become live
and registered later. Therefore, the clients should expect that even and registered later. Therefore, the clients should expect that even
if an object, such as TLD, IP address range or AS range is allocated, if an object, such as TLD, IP address range or AS range is allocated,
the existence of the entry in the corresponding bootstrap registry is the existence of the entry in the corresponding bootstrap registry is
not garanteed. not guaranteed.
9. Limitations 9. Limitations
This method does not provide a direct way to find authoritative RDAP This method does not provide a direct way to find authoritative RDAP
servers for any other objects than the ones described in this servers for any other objects than the ones described in this
document. In particular, the following objects are not bootstrapped document. In particular, the following objects are not bootstrapped
with the method described in this document: with the method described in this document:
o for entities o entities
o for queries using search patterns that do not contain a o queries using search patterns that do not contain a terminating
terminating string that matches some entries in the registries string that matches some entries in the registries
o for nameservers o nameservers
o for help o help
10. Security Considerations 10. Formal Definition
This section is the formal definition of the registries. The
structure of JSON objects and arrays using a set of primitive
elements is defined in [RFC4627]. Those elements are used to
describe the JSON structure of the registries.
10.1. Imported JSON Terms
o OBJECT: a JSON object, defined in Section 2.2 of [RFC4627]
o MEMBER: a member of a JSON object, defined in Section 2.2 of
[RFC4627]
o MEMBER-NAME: the name of a MEMBER, defined as a "string" in
Section 2.2 of [RFC4627]
o MEMBER-VALUE: the value of a MEMBER, defined as a "value" in
Section 2.2 of [RFC4627]
o ARRAY: an array, defined in Section 2.3 of [RFC4627]
o ARRAY-VALUE: an element of an ARRAY, defined in Section 2.3 of
[RFC4627]
o STRING: a "string" as defined in Section 2.5 of [RFC4627]
10.2. Registry Syntax
Using the above terms for the JSON structures, the syntax of a
registry is defined as follows:
o rdap-bootstrap-registry: an OBJECT containing a MEMBER version and
a MEMBER publication and a MEMBER description and a MEMBER
services-list
o version: a MEMBER with MEMBER-NAME "version" and MEMBER-VALUE a
STRING
o publication: a MEMBER with MEMBER-NAME "publication" and MEMBER-
VALUE a STRING
o description: a MEMBER with MEMBER-NAME "description" and MEMBER-
VALUE a STRING
o services-list: a MEMBER with MEMBER-NAME "services" and MEMBER-
VALUE a services-array
o services-array: an ARRAY, where each ARRAY-VALUE is a service
o service: an ARRAY of 2 elements, where the first ARRAY-VALUE is a
an entry-list and the second ARRAY-VALUE is a service-uri-list
o entry-list: an ARRAY, where each ARRAY-VALUE is a entry
o entry: a STRING
o service-uri-list: an ARRAY, where each ARRAY-VALUE is a service-
uri
o service-uri: a STRING
11. Security Considerations
By providing a bootstrap method to find RDAP servers, this document By providing a bootstrap method to find RDAP servers, this document
helps making sure that the end-users will get the RDAP data from helps to ensure that the end-users will get the RDAP data from an
authoritative source, instead of from rogue sources. The method authoritative source, instead of from rogue sources. The method has
itself has the same security properties as the RDAP protocols the same security properties as the RDAP protocols themselves. The
themselves. The transport used to access the registries could be transport used to access the registries could be more secure by using
more secure by using TLS [RFC5246] if IANA supports it. TLS [RFC5246] if IANA supports it.
11. IANA Considerations 12. IANA Considerations
IANA is requested to do the following: IANA is requested to implement the following registries in JSON
format conformant to the syntax defined in Section 10.
o Create a new registry "IPv4 Address Space RDAP Bootstrap Service" Multiple entries pointing to the same set of URLs are grouped
and make it available in the JSON format, as shown above. together in an array. Since multiple entries of non contiguous space
may be grouped together, the registry may not be sortable by entries,
therefore it is not required or expected that the entries be sorted
in a registry.
o Create a new registry "IPv6 Address Space RDAP Bootstrap Service" 12.1. IPv4 Address Space RDAP Bootstrap Service Registry
and make it available in the JSON format, as shown above.
o Create a new registry "Autonomous System Number Space RDAP Entries in this registry contain at least the following:
Bootstrap Service" and make it available in the JSON format, as
shown above.
o Create a new registry "Domain Name Space RDAP Bootstrap Service" o a CIDR specification of the network block being registered
and make it available in the JSON format, as shown above.
o one or more URLs that provide the RDAP service regarding this
registration.
12.2. IPv6 Address Space RDAP Bootstrap Service Registry
Entries in this registry contain at least the following:
o an IPv6 prefix [RFC4291] specification of the network block being
registered
o one or more URLs that provide the RDAP service regarding this
registration.
12.3. Autonomous System Number Space RDAP Bootstrap Service Registry
Entries in this registry contain at least the following:
o a range of Autonomous System numbers being registered
o one or more URLs that provide the RDAP service regarding this
registration.
12.4. Domain Name Space RDAP Bootstrap Service Registry
Entries in this registry contain at least the following:
o a domain name attached to the root being registered
o one or more URLs that provide the RDAP service regarding this
registration.
12.5. Policies and Additional Considerations
It is envisioned that these new registries will have similar entries It is envisioned that these new registries will have similar entries
than the corresponding IANA allocation registries, such as [ipv4reg], than the corresponding IANA allocation registries, such as [ipv4reg],
[ipv6reg], [asreg], [domainreg], and possibly similar registration [ipv6reg], [asreg], [domainreg], and possibly similar registration
policies. Given that the data required by RDAP clients is limited policies. Given that the data required by RDAP clients is limited
compared to the content of the existing corresponding registries, and compared to the content of the existing corresponding registries, and
given that this data has to be made available in a JSON format using given that this data has to be made available in a JSON format using
a specific key/value structure, this document is not defining an a specific key/value structure, this document is not defining an
extension of the existing IANA allocation registries. The extension of the existing IANA allocation registries. The
registration policies for the new registries of this document are registration policies for the new registries of this document are
left to IANA. left to IANA.
The registries may be maintained in IANA own format, such as XML.
However, each registry MUST be available in the JSON format defined
in this document, and optionally in other formats such as XML.
IANA should make sure that the service of those registries is able to IANA should make sure that the service of those registries is able to
cope with a larger demand and should take appropriate measures such cope with a larger demand and should take appropriate measures such
as caching, load balancing and redundancy. as caching, load balancing and redundancy.
The base URL of these registries is not defined in this document and The base URL of these registries is not defined in this document and
is left to IANA. is left to IANA.
The HTTP Content-Type returned to clients accessing the JSON output The HTTP Content-Type returned to clients accessing the JSON output
of the registries MUST be "application/json" as defined in [RFC7159]. of the registries MUST be "application/json" as defined in [RFC7159].
12. Acknowledgements 13. Acknowledgements
The weirds working group had multiple discussions on this topic, The WEIRDS working group had multiple discussions on this topic,
including a session during IETF 84, where various methods such as in- including a session during IETF 84, where various methods such as in-
DNS and others were debated. The idea of using IANA registries was DNS and others were debated. The idea of using IANA registries was
discovered by the editor during discussions with his colleagues as discovered by the editor during discussions with his colleagues as
well as by a comment from Andy Newton. All the people involved in well as by a comment from Andy Newton. All the people involved in
these discussions are herein acknowledged. Linlin Zhou, Jean- these discussions are herein acknowledged. Linlin Zhou, Jean-
Philippe Dionne, John Levine, Kim Davies, Ernie Dainow, Scott Philippe Dionne, John Levine, Kim Davies, Ernie Dainow, Scott
Hollenbeck, Arturo Servin, Andy Newton, Murray Kucherawy, Tom Hollenbeck, Arturo Servin, Andy Newton, Murray Kucherawy, Tom
Harrison, Naoki Kambe have provided input and suggestions to this Harrison, Naoki Kambe, Alexander Mayrhofer, Edward Lewis have
document. provided input and suggestions to this document. The section on
formal definition was inspired by section 6.2 of [RFC7071].
13. References 14. References
13.1. Normative References 14.1. Normative References
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
[RFC3339] Klyne, G., Ed. and C. Newman, "Date and Time on the [RFC3339] Klyne, G., Ed. and C. Newman, "Date and Time on the
Internet: Timestamps", RFC 3339, July 2002. Internet: Timestamps", RFC 3339, July 2002.
[RFC4291] Hinden, R. and S. Deering, "IP Version 6 Addressing [RFC4291] Hinden, R. and S. Deering, "IP Version 6 Addressing
Architecture", RFC 4291, February 2006. Architecture", RFC 4291, February 2006.
[RFC4627] Crockford, D., "The application/json Media Type for
JavaScript Object Notation (JSON)", RFC 4627, July 2006.
[RFC5890] Klensin, J., "Internationalized Domain Names for [RFC5890] Klensin, J., "Internationalized Domain Names for
Applications (IDNA): Definitions and Document Framework", Applications (IDNA): Definitions and Document Framework",
RFC 5890, August 2010. RFC 5890, August 2010.
[RFC7159] Bray, T., "The JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) Data [RFC7159] Bray, T., "The JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) Data
Interchange Format", RFC 7159, March 2014. Interchange Format", RFC 7159, March 2014.
13.2. Non-Normative References 14.2. Non-Normative References
[I-D.ietf-weirds-json-response] [I-D.ietf-weirds-json-response]
Newton, A. and S. Hollenbeck, "JSON Responses for the Newton, A. and S. Hollenbeck, "JSON Responses for the
Registration Data Access Protocol (RDAP)", draft-ietf- Registration Data Access Protocol (RDAP)", draft-ietf-
weirds-json-response-08 (work in progress), August 2014. weirds-json-response-09 (work in progress), September
2014.
[I-D.ietf-weirds-rdap-query] [I-D.ietf-weirds-rdap-query]
Newton, A. and S. Hollenbeck, "Registration Data Access Newton, A. and S. Hollenbeck, "Registration Data Access
Protocol Query Format", draft-ietf-weirds-rdap-query-13 Protocol Query Format", draft-ietf-weirds-rdap-query-14
(work in progress), August 2014. (work in progress), September 2014.
[I-D.ietf-weirds-redirects] [I-D.ietf-weirds-redirects]
Martinez, C., Zhou, L., and G. Rada, "Redirection Service Martinez, C., Zhou, L., and G. Rada, "Redirection Service
for Registration Data Access Protocol", draft-ietf-weirds- for Registration Data Access Protocol", draft-ietf-weirds-
redirects-04 (work in progress), July 2014. redirects-04 (work in progress), July 2014.
[I-D.ietf-weirds-using-http] [I-D.ietf-weirds-using-http]
Newton, A., Ellacott, B., and N. Kong, "HTTP usage in the Newton, A., Ellacott, B., and N. Kong, "HTTP usage in the
Registration Data Access Protocol (RDAP)", draft-ietf- Registration Data Access Protocol (RDAP)", draft-ietf-
weirds-using-http-10 (work in progress), August 2014. weirds-using-http-12 (work in progress), September 2014.
[RFC5246] Dierks, T. and E. Rescorla, "The Transport Layer Security [RFC5246] Dierks, T. and E. Rescorla, "The Transport Layer Security
(TLS) Protocol Version 1.2", RFC 5246, August 2008. (TLS) Protocol Version 1.2", RFC 5246, August 2008.
[RFC7071] Borenstein, N. and M. Kucherawy, "A Media Type for
Reputation Interchange", RFC 7071, November 2013.
[RFC7234] Fielding, R., Nottingham, M., and J. Reschke, "Hypertext [RFC7234] Fielding, R., Nottingham, M., and J. Reschke, "Hypertext
Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Caching", RFC 7234, June Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Caching", RFC 7234, June
2014. 2014.
[RFC7258] Farrell, S. and H. Tschofenig, "Pervasive Monitoring Is an [RFC7258] Farrell, S. and H. Tschofenig, "Pervasive Monitoring Is an
Attack", BCP 188, RFC 7258, May 2014. Attack", BCP 188, RFC 7258, May 2014.
[asreg] Internet Assigned Numbers Authority(IANA), , "Autonomous [asreg] Internet Assigned Numbers Authority(IANA), , "Autonomous
System (AS) Numbers", <http://www.iana.org/assignments/as- System (AS) Numbers", <http://www.iana.org/assignments/as-
numbers/as-numbers.xml>. numbers/as-numbers.xml>.
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