Network Working Group                                        M. Blanchet
Internet-Draft                                                  Viagenie
Intended status: Standards Track                        October 13, 27, 2014
Expires: April 16, 30, 2015

       Finding the Authoritative Registration Data (RDAP) Service
                   draft-ietf-weirds-bootstrap-09.txt
                   draft-ietf-weirds-bootstrap-10.txt

Abstract

   This document specifies a method to find which Registration Data
   Access Protocol (RDAP) server is authoritative to answer queries for
   a requested scope, such as domain names, IP addresses or Autonomous
   System numbers.

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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  Conventions Used In This Document . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   3.  Structure of RDAP Bootstrap Service Registries  . . . . . . .   3
   4.  Domain Name RDAP Bootstrap Service Registry . . . . . . . . .   5
   5.  Internet Numbers RDAP Bootstrap Service Registries  . . . . .   6
     5.1.  IPv4 Address Space RDAP Bootstrap Service Registry  . . .   6
     5.2.  IPv6 Address Space RDAP Bootstrap Service Registry  . . .   7
     5.3.  Autonomous Systems RDAP Bootstrap Service Registry  . . .   8
   6.  Entity  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   7.  Non-existent Entries or RDAP URL Values . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   8.  Deployment and Implementation Considerations  . . . . . . . .  10
   9.  Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   10. Formal Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     10.1.  Imported JSON Terms  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     10.2.  Registry Syntax  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   11. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   12. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     12.1.  IPv4 Address Space RDAP Bootstrap Service Registry . . .  13
     12.2.  IPv6 Address Space RDAP Bootstrap Service Registry . . .  13  14
     12.3.  Autonomous System Number Space RDAP Bootstrap Service
            Registry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
     12.4.  Domain Name Space RDAP Bootstrap Service Registry  . . .  14
     12.5.  Additional Consideration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
   13. Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
   14. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14  15
     14.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14  15
     14.2.  Non-Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
   Author's Address  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16

1.  Introduction

   Querying and retrieving registration data from registries are defined
   in the Registration Data Access Protocol (RDAP) [I-D.ietf-weirds-rdap
   -query][I-D.ietf-weirds-using-http][I-D.ietf-weirds-json-response].
   These documents do not specify where to send the queries.  This
   document specifies a method to find which server is authoritative to
   answer queries for the requested scope.

   Top-level domains(TLD), Autonomous System numbers (AS), and network
   blocks are delegated by IANA to Internet registries such as TLD
   registries and Regional Internet Registries(RIR) that then issue
   further delegations and maintain information about them.  Thus,
   obviously the bootstrap information needed by RDAP clients is best
   generated from data and processes already maintained by IANA, whose
   registries already exist at [ipv4reg], [ipv6reg], [asreg], and
   [domainreg].

   The required new functionality in support of RDAP could be
   accomplished by augmenting these registries to contain new fields, or
   creating second parallel registries containing the extra fields whose
   entries mirror the existing ones.  Either approach will satisfy the
   needs of this document.

   This document requests IANA to make these an augmented version of
   the existing registries available for the specific purpose of
   RDAP use, herein named RDAP Bootstrap Service Registries.  An RDAP
   client fetches the RDAP Bootstrap Service Registries, extracts the
   data and then does a match with the query data to find the
   authoritative registration data server and appropriate query base
   URL.

2.  Conventions Used In This Document

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

3.  Structure of RDAP Bootstrap Service Registries

   The RDAP Bootstrap Service Registries, as specified in Section 12,
   will be made available as JSON [RFC7159] objects, to be retrieved via
   HTTP from a location as specified by IANA.  The JSON object for each
   registry will start with a series of members that contain metadata
   about the registry such as a version identifier, a timestamp of the
   publication date of the registry and a description.  Following that
   is a "services" member which contains the registry items themselves,
   as an array.  Each item of the array contains a second-level array,
   with two elements, each of them being a third-level array.

   The first third-level array, named 'Entry array', contains all
   entries that have the same set of base RDAP URLs.  The second third-
   level array, named 'Service URL array', contains the list of base
   RDAP URLs usable for the entries found in the 'Entry array'.  There
   is no assumption of sorting except that the two arrays found in each
   second-level array MUST appear in the correct order: The entries
   array are followed by the service URL array.  An example structure of
   the JSON output of a RDAP Bootstrap Service Registry is illustrated:

   {
       "version": "1.0",
       "publication": "YYYY-MM-DDTHH:MM:SSZ",
       "description": "Some text",
       "services": [
         [
           ["entry1", "entry2", "entry3"],
           [
             "https://registry.example.com/myrdap/",
             "http://registry.example.com/myrdap/"
           ]
         ],
         [
           ["entry4"],
           [
             "http://example.org/"
           ]
         ]
       ]
   }

   The formal syntax is described in Section 10.

   The "version" corresponds to the format version of the registry.
   This specification defines "1.0".

   The syntax of "publication" value conforms to the Internet date/time
   format [RFC3339].

   The optional "description" string can contain a comment regarding the
   content of the bootstrap object.

   Per [RFC7258], in each array of base RDAP URLs, the secure versions
   of the transport protocol SHOULD be preferred and tried first.  For
   example, if the base RDAP URLs array contain both https and http
   URLs, the bootstrap client SHOULD try the https version first.

   Base RDAP URLs MUST have a trailing "/" character because they are
   concatenated to the various segments defined in
   [I-D.ietf-weirds-rdap-query].

   JSON names MUST follow the format recommendations of
   [I-D.ietf-weirds-using-http].  Any unknown or unspecified JSON object
   properties or values should be ignored by implementers.

   Internationalized Domain Names labels used as entries or base RDAP
   URLs in the registries defined in this document MUST be only
   represented using their A-Label form as defined in [RFC5890].

   All Domain Names labels used as entries or base RDAP URLs in the
   registries defined in this document MUST be only represented in
   lowercase.

4.  Domain Name RDAP Bootstrap Service Registry

   The JSON output of this registry contains domain labels entries
   attached to the root, grouped by base RDAP URLs, as shown in this
   example.

   {
       "version": "1.0",
       "publication": "YYYY-MM-DDTHH:MM:SSZ",
       "description": "Some text",
       "services": [
         [
           ["net", "com"],
           [
             "https://registry.example.com/myrdap/"
           ]
         ],
         [
           ["org", "mytld"],
           [
             "http://example.org/"
           ]
         ],
         [
           ["xn--zckzah"],
           [
             "https://example.net/rdapxn--zckzah/",
             "http://example.net/rdapxn--zckzah/"
           ]
         ]
       ]
   }

   The domain names authoritative registration data service is found by
   doing the label-wise longest match of the target domain name with the
   domain values in the arrays in the IANA Domain Name RDAP Bootstrap
   Service Registry.  The values contained in the second element of the
   array are the valid base RDAP URLs as described in
   [I-D.ietf-weirds-rdap-query].

   For example, a domain RDAP query for a.b.example.com matches the com
   entry in one of the arrays of the registry.  The base RDAP URL for
   this query is then taken from the second element of the array, which
   is an array of base RDAP URLs valid for this entry.  The client
   chooses one of the base URLs from this array; in this example it
   chooses the only one available, "https://registry.example.com/
   myrdap/".  The segment specified in [I-D.ietf-weirds-rdap-query] is
   then appended to the base URL to complete the query.  The complete
   query is then "https://registry.example.com/myrdap/domain/
   a.b.example.com".

   If a domain RDAP query for a.b.example.com matches both com and
   example.com entries in the registry, then the longest match applies
   and the example.com entry is used by the client.

5.  Internet Numbers RDAP Bootstrap Service Registries

   This section discusses IPv4 and IPv6 address space and autonomous
   system numbers.

   For IP address space, the authoritative registration data service is
   found by doing a longest match of the target address with the values
   of the arrays in the corresponding Address Space RDAP Bootstrap
   Service registry.  The longest match is done the same way as for
   routing: the addresses are converted in binary form and then the
   binary strings are compared to find the longest match up to the
   specified prefix length.  The values contained in the second element
   of the array are the base RDAP URLs as described in
   [I-D.ietf-weirds-rdap-query].  The longest match method enables
   covering prefixes of a larger address space pointing to one base RDAP
   URL while more specific prefixes within the covering prefix being
   served by another base RDAP URL.

5.1.  IPv4 Address Space RDAP Bootstrap Service Registry

   The JSON output of this registry contains IPv4 prefix entries,
   specified in CIDR format and grouped by RDAP URLs, as shown in this
   example.

   {
       "version": "1.0",
       "publication": "2024-01-07T10:11:12Z",
       "description": "RDAP Bootstrap file for example registries.",
       "services": [
         [
           ["1.0.0.0/8", "192.0.0.0/8"],
           [
             "https://rir1.example.com/myrdap/"
           ]
         ],
         [
           ["28.2.0.0/16", "192.0.2.0/24"],
           [
             "http://example.org/"
           ]
         ],
         [
           ["28.3.0.0/16"],
           [
             "https://example.net/rdaprir2/",
             "http://example.net/rdaprir2/"
           ]
         ]
       ]
   }

   For example, a query for "192.0.2.1/25" matches the "192.0.0.0/8"
   entry and the "192.0.2.0/24" entry in the example registry above.
   The latter is chosen by the client given the longest match.  The base
   RDAP URL for this query is then taken from the second element of the
   array, which is an array of base RDAP URLs valid for this entry.  The
   client chooses one of the base URLs from this array; in this example
   it chooses the only one available, "http://example.org/".  The
   {resource} specified in [I-D.ietf-weirds-rdap-query] is then appended
   to the base URL to complete the query.  The complete query is then
   "https://example.org/ip/192.0.2.1/25".

5.2.  IPv6 Address Space RDAP Bootstrap Service Registry

   The JSON output of this registry contains IPv6 prefix entries, using
   [RFC4291] text representation of address prefixes format, grouped by
   base RDAP URLs, as shown in this example.

   {
       "version": "1.0",
       "publication": "2024-01-07T10:11:12Z",
       "description": "RDAP Bootstrap file for example registries.",
       "services": [
         [
           ["2001:0200::/23", "2001:db8::/32"],
           [
             "https://rir2.example.com/myrdap/"
           ]
         ],
         [
           ["2600::/16", "2100:ffff::/32"],
           [
             "http://example.org/"
           ]
         ],
         [
           ["2001:0200:1000::/28"],
           ["2001:0200:1000::/36"],
           [
             "https://example.net/rdaprir2/",
             "http://example.net/rdaprir2/"
           ]
         ]
       ]
   }

   For example, a query for "2001:0200:1000::/48" matches the
   "2001:0200::/23" entry and the "2001:0200:1000::/28" "2001:0200:1000::/36" entry in the
   example registry above.  The latter is chosen by the client given the
   longest match.  The base RDAP URL for this query is then taken from
   the second element of the array, which is an array of base RDAP URLs
   valid for this entry.  The client chooses one of the base URLs from
   this array; in this example it chooses "https://example.net/
   rdaprir2/" because it's the secure version of the protocol.  The
   segment specified in [I-D.ietf-weirds-rdap-query] is then appended to
   the base URL to complete the query.  The complete query is therefore
   "https://example.net/rdaprir2/ip/2001:0200:1000::/48".  If the server
   does not answer, the client can then use another URL prefix from the
   array.

5.3.  Autonomous Systems RDAP Bootstrap Service Registry

   The JSON output of this contains Autonomous Systems Number Ranges
   entries, grouped by base RDAP URLs, as shown in this example.  The
   first element of each second-level array is an array containing the
   list of AS number ranges served by the base RDAP URLs found in the
   second element.  The array always contains two AS numbers which
   represents the range of AS Numbers between the two elements of the
   array.  When the two AS numbers are identical, then it only refers to
   that single AS number.

   {
       "version": "1.0",
       "publication": "2024-01-07T10:11:12Z",
       "description": "RDAP Bootstrap file for example registries.",
       "services": [
         [
           ["2045-2045"],
           [
             "https://rir3.example.com/myrdap/"
           ]
         ],
         [
           ["10000-12000", "300000-400000"],
           [
             "http://example.org/"
           ]
         ],
         [
           ["64512-65534"],
           [
             "http://example.net/rdaprir2/",
             "https://example.net/rdaprir2/"
           ]
         ]
       ]
   }

   For example, a query for AS 65411 matches the 64512-65534 entry in
   the example registry above.  The base RDAP URL for this query is then
   taken from the second element of the array, which is an array of base
   RDAP URLs valid for this entry.  The client chooses one of the base
   URLs from this array; in this example it chooses
   "https://example.net/rdaprir2/".  The segment specified in
   [I-D.ietf-weirds-rdap-query] is then appended to the base URL to
   complete the query.  The complete query is therefore
   "https://example.net/rdaprir2/autnum/65411".  If the server does not
   answer, the client can then use another URL prefix from the array.

6.  Entity

   Entities (such as contacts, registrants, or registrars) can
   be queried by handle as described in [I-D.ietf-weirds-rdap-query].
   Since there is no global namespace for entities, this document does
   not describe how to find the authoritative RDAP server for entities.

   It is possible however that, if the entity identifier was received
   from a previous query, the same RDAP server could be queried for that
   entity or the entity identifier itself is a fully referenced URL that
   can be queried.

7.  Non-existent Entries or RDAP URL Values

   The registries may not contain the requested value or the base RDAP
   URL value may be empty.  In these cases, there is no known RDAP
   server for that requested value and the client SHOULD provide an
   appropriate error message to the user.

8.  Deployment and Implementation Considerations

   This method relies on the fact that RDAP clients are fetching the
   IANA registries to then find the servers locally.  Clients SHOULD NOT
   fetch the registry on every RDAP request.  Clients SHOULD cache the
   registry, but use underlying protocol signalling, such as the HTTP
   Expires header field [RFC7234], to identify when it is time to
   refresh the cached registry.

   If the query data does not match any entry in the client cached
   registry, then the client may implement various methods, such as the
   following:

   o  In the case of a domain object, the client may first query the DNS
      to see if the respective entry has been delegated or if it is a
      mistyped information by the user.  The DNS query could be to fetch
      the NS records for the TLD domain.  If the DNS answer is negative,
      then there is no need to fetch the new version of the registry.
      However, if the DNS answer is positive, this may mean that the
      currently cached registry is no longer current.  The client could
      then fetch the registry, parse and then do the normal matching as
      specified above.  This method may not work for all types of RDAP
      objects.

   o  If the client knows the existence of an RDAP aggregator or
      redirector and its associated base URL, and trusts that service,
      then it could send the query to the redirector, which would
      redirect the client if it knows the authoritative server that
      client has not found.

   Some authorities of registration data may work together on sharing
   their information for a common service, including mutual redirection
   [I-D.ietf-weirds-redirects].

   When a new object is allocated, such as a new AS range, a new TLD or
   a new IP address range, there is no guarantee that this new object
   will have an entry in the corresponding bootstrap RDAP registry,
   since the setup of the RDAP server for this new entry may become live
   and registered later.  Therefore, the clients should expect that even
   if an object, such as TLD, IP address range or AS range is allocated,
   the existence of the entry in the corresponding bootstrap registry is
   not guaranteed.

9.  Limitations

   This method does not provide a direct way to find authoritative RDAP
   servers for any other objects than the ones described in this
   document.  In particular, the following objects are not bootstrapped
   with the method described in this document:

   o  entities

   o  queries using search patterns that do not contain a terminating
      string that matches some entries in the registries

   o  nameservers

   o  help

10.  Formal Definition

   This section is the formal definition of the registries.  The
   structure of JSON objects and arrays using a set of primitive
   elements is defined in [RFC7159].  Those elements are used to
   describe the JSON structure of the registries.

10.1.  Imported JSON Terms

   o  OBJECT: a JSON object, defined in Section 2.2 of [RFC7159]

   o  MEMBER: a member of a JSON object, defined in Section 2.2 of
      [RFC7159]

   o  MEMBER-NAME: the name of a MEMBER, defined as a "string" in
      Section 2.2 of [RFC7159]

   o  MEMBER-VALUE: the value of a MEMBER, defined as a "value" in
      Section 2.2 of [RFC7159]

   o  ARRAY: an array, defined in Section 2.3 of [RFC7159]

   o  ARRAY-VALUE: an element of an ARRAY, defined in Section 2.3 of
      [RFC7159]

   o  STRING: a "string" as defined in Section 2.5 of [RFC7159]

10.2.  Registry Syntax

   Using the above terms for the JSON structures, the syntax of a
   registry is defined as follows:

   o  rdap-bootstrap-registry: an OBJECT containing a MEMBER version and
      a MEMBER publication and a MEMBER description and a MEMBER
      services-list

   o  version: a MEMBER with MEMBER-NAME "version" and MEMBER-VALUE a
      STRING

   o  publication: a MEMBER with MEMBER-NAME "publication" and MEMBER-
      VALUE a STRING

   o  description: a MEMBER with MEMBER-NAME "description" and MEMBER-
      VALUE a STRING

   o  services-list: a MEMBER with MEMBER-NAME "services" and MEMBER-
      VALUE a services-array

   o  services-array: an ARRAY, where each ARRAY-VALUE is a service

   o  service: an ARRAY of 2 elements, where the first ARRAY-VALUE is a
      an entry-list and the second ARRAY-VALUE is a service-uri-list

   o  entry-list: an ARRAY, where each ARRAY-VALUE is a entry

   o  entry: a STRING

   o  service-uri-list: an ARRAY, where each ARRAY-VALUE is a service-
      uri

   o  service-uri: a STRING

11.  Security Considerations

   By providing a bootstrap method to find RDAP servers, this document
   helps to ensure that the end-users will get the RDAP data from an
   authoritative source, instead of from rogue sources.  The method has
   the same security properties as the RDAP protocols themselves.  The
   transport used to access the registries could be more secure by using
   TLS [RFC5246] if IANA supports it.

12.  IANA Considerations

   The required new functionality in support of RDAP could be
   accomplished by augmenting the existing registries to contain new
   fields, or creating second parallel registries containing the extra
   fields whose entries mirror the existing ones.  Either approach will
   satisfy the needs of this document.

   IANA is requested to make the RDAP Bootstrap Services Registries
   described below available as JSON objects, the syntax of which are
   described by section 10.  The process for adding or updating entries
   into these registries does not correspond to the registration
   policies described in [RFC5226]; as stated earlier, these registries
   are generated from the data, processes, and policies maintained by
   IANA in their allocation registries ([ipv4reg], [ipv6reg], [asreg],
   and [domainreg]).  IANA is expected to generate the RDAP Bootstrap
   Services Registries data from these above mentioned registries,
   according to their own registration policies.  This document does not
   extend or otherwise change those policies.

   Each of the RDAP Bootstrap Services Registries needs to be made
   available for general public on-demand download in the JSON format at
   a location determined by IANA.

   IANA is also advised that the download demand for the RDAP Bootstrap
   Services Registries may be unusually high compared to other
   registries that exist already.  The technical infrastructure by which
   registries are published may need to be reviewed.

   Multiple entries pointing to the same set of URLs are grouped
   together in an array.  Since multiple entries of non contiguous space
   may be grouped together, the registry may not be sortable by entries,
   therefore it is not required or expected that the entries be sorted
   in a registry.

12.1.  IPv4 Address Space RDAP Bootstrap Service Registry

   Entries in this registry contain at least the following:

   o  a CIDR specification of the network block being registered

   o  one or more URLs that provide the RDAP service regarding this
      registration.

12.2.  IPv6 Address Space RDAP Bootstrap Service Registry

   Entries in this registry contain at least the following:

   o  an IPv6 prefix [RFC4291] specification of the network block being
      registered

   o  one or more URLs that provide the RDAP service regarding this
      registration.

12.3.  Autonomous System Number Space RDAP Bootstrap Service Registry

   Entries in this registry contain at least the following:

   o  a range of Autonomous System numbers being registered

   o  one or more URLs that provide the RDAP service regarding this
      registration.

12.4.  Domain Name Space RDAP Bootstrap Service Registry

   Entries in this registry contain at least the following:

   o  a domain name attached to the root being registered

   o  one or more URLs that provide the RDAP service regarding this
      registration.

12.5.  Additional Consideration

   The HTTP Content-Type returned to clients accessing the JSON output
   of the registries MUST be "application/json" as defined in [RFC7159].

13.  Acknowledgements

   The WEIRDS working group had multiple discussions on this topic,
   including a session during IETF 84, where various methods such as in-
   DNS and others were debated.  The idea of using IANA registries was
   discovered by the editor during discussions with his colleagues as
   well as by a comment from Andy Newton.  All the people involved in
   these discussions are herein acknowledged.  Linlin Zhou, Jean-
   Philippe Dionne, John Levine, Kim Davies, Ernie Dainow, Scott
   Hollenbeck, Arturo Servin, Andy Newton, Murray Kucherawy, Tom
   Harrison, Naoki Kambe, Alexander Mayrhofer, Edward Lewis, Pete
   Resnick
   Resnick, Alessandro Vesely, Bert Greevenbosch have provided input and
   suggestions to this document.  Guillaume Leclanche was a co-editor of
   this document for some revisions; his support is therein acknowledged
   and greatly appreciated.  The section on formal definition was
   inspired by section 6.2 of [RFC7071].

14.  References

14.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC3339]  Klyne, G., Ed. and C. Newman, "Date and Time on the
              Internet: Timestamps", RFC 3339, July 2002.

   [RFC4291]  Hinden, R. and S. Deering, "IP Version 6 Addressing
              Architecture", RFC 4291, February 2006.

   [RFC5890]  Klensin, J., "Internationalized Domain Names for
              Applications (IDNA): Definitions and Document Framework",
              RFC 5890, August 2010.

   [RFC7159]  Bray, T., "The JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) Data
              Interchange Format", RFC 7159, March 2014.

14.2.  Non-Normative References

   [I-D.ietf-weirds-json-response]
              Newton, A. and S. Hollenbeck, "JSON Responses for the
              Registration Data Access Protocol (RDAP)", draft-ietf-
              weirds-json-response-10 (work in progress), October 2014.

   [I-D.ietf-weirds-rdap-query]
              Newton, A. and S. Hollenbeck, "Registration Data Access
              Protocol Query Format", draft-ietf-weirds-rdap-query-15
              (work in progress), October 2014.

   [I-D.ietf-weirds-redirects]
              Martinez, C., Zhou, L., and G. Rada, "Redirection Service
              for Registration Data Access Protocol", draft-ietf-weirds-
              redirects-04 (work in progress), July 2014.

   [I-D.ietf-weirds-using-http]
              Newton, A., Ellacott, B., and N. Kong, "HTTP usage in the
              Registration Data Access Protocol (RDAP)", draft-ietf-
              weirds-using-http-13 (work in progress), October 2014.

   [RFC5226]  Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an
              IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 5226,
              May 2008.

   [RFC5246]  Dierks, T. and E. Rescorla, "The Transport Layer Security
              (TLS) Protocol Version 1.2", RFC 5246, August 2008.

   [RFC7071]  Borenstein, N. and M. Kucherawy, "A Media Type for
              Reputation Interchange", RFC 7071, November 2013.

   [RFC7234]  Fielding, R., Nottingham, M., and J. Reschke, "Hypertext
              Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Caching", RFC 7234, June
              2014.

   [RFC7258]  Farrell, S. and H. Tschofenig, "Pervasive Monitoring Is an
              Attack", BCP 188, RFC 7258, May 2014.

   [asreg]    Internet Assigned Numbers Authority(IANA), , "Autonomous
              System (AS) Numbers", <http://www.iana.org/assignments/as-
              numbers/as-numbers.xml>.

   [domainreg]
              Internet Assigned Numbers Authority(IANA), , "Root Zone
              Database", <http://www.iana.org/domains/root/db>.

   [ipv4reg]  Internet Assigned Numbers Authority(IANA), , "IPv4 Address
              Space", <http://www.iana.org/assignments/ipv4-address-
              space/ipv4-address-space.xml>.

   [ipv6reg]  Internet Assigned Numbers Authority(IANA), , "IPv6 Global
              Unicast Address Assignments",
              <http://www.iana.org/assignments/ipv6-unicast-address-
              assignments/ipv6-unicast-address-assignments.xml>.

Author's Address

   Marc Blanchet
   Viagenie
   246 Aberdeen
   Quebec, QC  G1R 2E1
   Canada

   Email: Marc.Blanchet@viagenie.ca
   URI:   http://viagenie.ca