draft-ietf-weirds-bootstrap-11.txt   rfc7484.txt 
Network Working Group M. Blanchet Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) M. Blanchet
Internet-Draft Viagenie Request for Comments: 7484 Viagenie
Intended status: Standards Track December 18, 2014 Category: Standards Track March 2015
Expires: June 21, 2015 ISSN: 2070-1721
Finding the Authoritative Registration Data (RDAP) Service Finding the Authoritative Registration Data (RDAP) Service
draft-ietf-weirds-bootstrap-11.txt
Abstract Abstract
This document specifies a method to find which Registration Data This document specifies a method to find which Registration Data
Access Protocol (RDAP) server is authoritative to answer queries for Access Protocol (RDAP) server is authoritative to answer queries for
a requested scope, such as domain names, IP addresses or Autonomous a requested scope, such as domain names, IP addresses, or Autonomous
System numbers. System numbers.
Status of This Memo Status of This Memo
This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the This is an Internet Standards Track document.
provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute
working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.
Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any (IETF). It represents the consensus of the IETF community. It has
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference received public review and has been approved for publication by the
material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG). Further information on
Internet Standards is available in Section 2 of RFC 5741.
This Internet-Draft will expire on June 21, 2015. Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at
http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7484.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2014 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2015 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
Provisions Relating to IETF Documents Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
(http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
publication of this document. Please review these documents publication of this document. Please review these documents
carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must
include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
described in the Simplified BSD License. described in the Simplified BSD License.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2. Conventions Used In This Document . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. Conventions Used in This Document . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3. Structure of the RDAP Bootstrap Service Registries . . . . . 3 3. Structure of the RDAP Bootstrap Service Registries . . . . . 3
4. Domain Name RDAP Bootstrap Service Registry . . . . . . . . . 5 4. Bootstrap Service Registry for Domain Name Space . . . . . . 5
5. Internet Numbers RDAP Bootstrap Service Registries . . . . . 6 5. Bootstrap Service Registries for Internet Numbers . . . . . . 6
5.1. IPv4 Address Space RDAP Bootstrap Service Registry . . . 6 5.1. Bootstrap Service Registry for IPv4 Address Space . . . . 7
5.2. IPv6 Address Space RDAP Bootstrap Service Registry . . . 7 5.2. Bootstrap Service Registry for IPv6 Address Space . . . . 8
5.3. Autonomous Systems RDAP Bootstrap Service Registry . . . 8 5.3. Bootstrap Service Registry for AS Number Space . . . . . 9
6. Entity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 6. Entity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
7. Non-existent Entries or RDAP URL Values . . . . . . . . . . . 10 7. Non-existent Entries or RDAP URL Values . . . . . . . . . . . 10
8. Deployment and Implementation Considerations . . . . . . . . 10 8. Deployment and Implementation Considerations . . . . . . . . 10
9. Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 9. Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
10. Formal Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 10. Formal Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
10.1. Imported JSON Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 10.1. Imported JSON Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
10.2. Registry Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 10.2. Registry Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
11. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 11. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
12. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 12. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
12.1. IPv4 Address Space RDAP Bootstrap Service Registry . . . 14 12.1. Bootstrap Service Registry for IPv4 Address Space . . . 14
12.2. IPv6 Address Space RDAP Bootstrap Service Registry . . . 14 12.2. Bootstrap Service Registry for IPv6 Address Space . . . 14
12.3. Autonomous System Number Space RDAP Bootstrap Service 12.3. Bootstrap Service Registry for AS Number Space . . . . . 14
Registry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 12.4. Bootstrap Service Registry for Domain Name Space . . . . 15
12.4. Domain Name Space RDAP Bootstrap Service Registry . . . 15 13. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
13. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 13.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
14. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 13.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
14.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
14.2. Non-Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
Querying and retrieving registration data from registries are defined Querying and retrieving registration data from registries are defined
in the Registration Data Access Protocol (RDAP) [I-D.ietf-weirds-rdap in Registration Data Access Protocol (RDAP) [RFC7480] [RFC7482]
-query][I-D.ietf-weirds-using-http][I-D.ietf-weirds-json-response]. [RFC7483]. These documents do not specify where to send the queries.
These documents do not specify where to send the queries. This This document specifies a method to find which server is
document specifies a method to find which server is authoritative to authoritative to answer queries for the requested scope.
answer queries for the requested scope.
Top-level domains(TLD), Autonomous System numbers (AS), and network Top-Level Domains (TLDs), Autonomous System (AS) numbers, and network
blocks are delegated by IANA to Internet registries such as TLD blocks are delegated by IANA to Internet registries such as TLD
registries and Regional Internet Registries (RIR) that then issue registries and Regional Internet Registries (RIRs) that then issue
further delegations and maintain information about them. Thus, the further delegations and maintain information about them. Thus, the
bootstrap information needed by RDAP clients is best generated from bootstrap information needed by RDAP clients is best generated from
data and processes already maintained by IANA, which registries data and processes already maintained by IANA; the relevant
already exist at [ipv4reg], [ipv6reg], [asreg], and [domainreg]. registries already exist at [ipv4reg], [ipv6reg], [asreg], and
[domainreg].
This document requests IANA to create new registries based on a JSON Per this document, IANA has created new registries based on a JSON
format specified in this document, herein named RDAP Bootstrap format specified in this document, herein named RDAP Bootstrap
Service Registries. These new registries are based on the existing Service Registries. These new registries are based on the existing
entries of the above mentioned registries. An RDAP client fetches entries of the above mentioned registries. An RDAP client fetches
the RDAP Bootstrap Service Registries, extracts the data and then the RDAP Bootstrap Service Registries, extracts the data, and then
performs a match with the query data to find the authoritative performs a match with the query data to find the authoritative
registration data server and appropriate query base URL. registration data server and appropriate query base URL.
2. Conventions Used In This Document 2. Conventions Used in This Document
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119]. document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].
3. Structure of the RDAP Bootstrap Service Registries 3. Structure of the RDAP Bootstrap Service Registries
The RDAP Bootstrap Service Registries, as specified in Section 12 The RDAP Bootstrap Service Registries, as specified in Section 12
below, will be made available as JSON [RFC7159] objects, to be below, have been made available as JSON [RFC7159] objects, which can
retrieved via HTTP from a location specified by IANA. The JSON be retrieved via HTTP from locations specified by IANA. The JSON
object for each registry contains a series of members containing object for each registry contains a series of members containing
metadata about the registry such as a version identifier, a timestamp metadata about the registry such as a version identifier, a timestamp
of the publication date of the registry and a description. of the publication date of the registry, and a description.
Additionally, a "services" member contains the registry items Additionally, a "services" member contains the registry items
themselves, as an array. Each item of the array contains a second- themselves, as an array. Each item of the array contains a second-
level array, with two elements, each of them being a third-level level array, with two elements, each of them being a third-level
array. array.
Each element of the Services array is a second-level array with two Each element of the Services Array is a second-level array with two
elements: in order, an Entry Array and a Service URL Array. elements: in order, an Entry Array and a Service URL Array.
The Entry Array contains all entries that have the same set of base The Entry Array contains all entries that have the same set of base
RDAP URLs. The Service URL Array contains the list of base RDAP URLs RDAP URLs. The Service URL Array contains the list of base RDAP URLs
usable for the entries found in the Entry Array. Elements within usable for the entries found in the Entry Array. Elements within
these two arrays are not sorted in any way. these two arrays are not sorted in any way.
An example structure of the JSON output of a RDAP Bootstrap Service An example structure of the JSON output of a RDAP Bootstrap Service
Registry is illustrated: Registry is illustrated:
skipping to change at page 4, line 31 skipping to change at page 4, line 34
] ]
] ]
] ]
} }
The formal syntax is described in Section 10. The formal syntax is described in Section 10.
The "version" corresponds to the format version of the registry. The "version" corresponds to the format version of the registry.
This specification defines version "1.0". This specification defines version "1.0".
The syntax of "publication" value conforms to the Internet date/time The syntax of the "publication" value conforms to the Internet date/
format [RFC3339]. The value is the latest update date of the time format [RFC3339]. The value is the latest update date of the
registry by IANA. registry by IANA.
The optional "description" string can contain a comment regarding the The optional "description" string can contain a comment regarding the
content of the bootstrap object. content of the bootstrap object.
Per [RFC7258], in each array of base RDAP URLs, the secure versions Per [RFC7258], in each array of base RDAP URLs, the secure versions
of the transport protocol SHOULD be preferred and tried first. For of the transport protocol SHOULD be preferred and tried first. For
example, if the base RDAP URLs array contain both https and http example, if the base RDAP URLs array contains both HTTPS and HTTP
URLs, the bootstrap client SHOULD try the https version first. URLs, the bootstrap client SHOULD try the HTTPS version first.
Base RDAP URLs MUST have a trailing "/" character because they are Base RDAP URLs MUST have a trailing "/" character because they are
concatenated to the various segments defined in concatenated to the various segments defined in [RFC7482].
[I-D.ietf-weirds-rdap-query].
JSON names MUST follow the format recommendations of JSON names MUST follow the format recommendations of [RFC7480]. Any
[I-D.ietf-weirds-using-http]. Any unrecognized JSON object unrecognized JSON object properties or values MUST be ignored by
properties or values MUST be ignored by implementations. implementations.
Internationalized Domain Names labels used as entries or base RDAP Internationalized Domain Name labels used as entries or base RDAP
URLs in the registries defined in this document MUST be only URLs in the registries defined in this document MUST be only
represented using their A-Label form as defined in [RFC5890]. represented using their A-label form as defined in [RFC5890].
All Domain Names labels used as entries or base RDAP URLs in the All Domain Name labels used as entries or base RDAP URLs in the
registries defined in this document MUST be only represented in registries defined in this document MUST be only represented in
lowercase. lowercase.
4. Domain Name RDAP Bootstrap Service Registry 4. Bootstrap Service Registry for Domain Name Space
The JSON output of this registry contains domain labels entries The JSON output of this registry contains domain label entries
attached to the root, grouped by base RDAP URLs, as shown in this attached to the root, grouped by base RDAP URLs, as shown in this
example. example.
{ {
"version": "1.0", "version": "1.0",
"publication": "YYYY-MM-DDTHH:MM:SSZ", "publication": "YYYY-MM-DDTHH:MM:SSZ",
"description": "Some text", "description": "Some text",
"services": [ "services": [
[ [
["net", "com"], ["net", "com"],
skipping to change at page 5, line 46 skipping to change at page 5, line 46
[ [
["xn--zckzah"], ["xn--zckzah"],
[ [
"https://example.net/rdapxn--zckzah/", "https://example.net/rdapxn--zckzah/",
"http://example.net/rdapxn--zckzah/" "http://example.net/rdapxn--zckzah/"
] ]
] ]
] ]
} }
The domain names authoritative registration data service is found by The domain name's authoritative registration data service is found by
doing the label-wise longest match of the target domain name with the doing the label-wise longest match of the target domain name with the
domain values in the Entry Arrays in the IANA Domain Name RDAP domain values in the Entry Arrays in the IANA Bootstrap Service
Bootstrap Service Registry. The match is done per label, from right Registry for Domain Name Space. The match is done per label, from
to left. If the longest match results in multiple entries, then right to left. If the longest match results in multiple entries,
those entries are considered equivalent. The values contained in the then those entries are considered equivalent. The values contained
Service URL Array of the matching second-level array are the valid in the Service URL Array of the matching second-level array are the
base RDAP URLs as described in [I-D.ietf-weirds-rdap-query]. valid base RDAP URLs as described in [RFC7482].
For example, a domain RDAP query for a.b.example.com matches the com For example, a domain RDAP query for a.b.example.com matches the com
entry in one of the arrays of the registry. The base RDAP URL for entry in one of the arrays of the registry. The base RDAP URL for
this query is then taken from the second element of the array, which this query is then taken from the second element of the array, which
is an array of base RDAP URLs valid for this entry. The client is an array of base RDAP URLs valid for this entry. The client
chooses one of the base URLs from this array; in this example it chooses one of the base URLs from this array; in this example, it
chooses the only one available, "https://registry.example.com/ chooses the only one available, "https://registry.example.com/
myrdap/". The segment specified in [I-D.ietf-weirds-rdap-query] is myrdap/". The segment specified in [RFC7482] is then appended to the
then appended to the base URL to complete the query. The complete base URL to complete the query. The complete query is then
query is then "https://registry.example.com/myrdap/domain/ "https://registry.example.com/myrdap/domain/a.b.example.com".
a.b.example.com".
If a domain RDAP query for a.b.example.com matches both com and If a domain RDAP query for a.b.example.com matches both com and
example.com entries in the registry, then the longest match applies example.com entries in the registry, then the longest match applies
and the example.com entry is used by the client. and the example.com entry is used by the client.
If the registry contains entries such as com and goodexample.com, If the registry contains entries such as com and goodexample.com,
then a domain RDAP query for example.com only match com entry, then a domain RDAP query for example.com only matches the com entry
because matching is done on a per label basis. because matching is done on a per-label basis.
The entry for the root of the domain name space is specified as "". The entry for the root of the domain name space is specified as "".
5. Internet Numbers RDAP Bootstrap Service Registries 5. Bootstrap Service Registries for Internet Numbers
This section discusses IPv4 and IPv6 address space and autonomous This section discusses IPv4 and IPv6 address space and Autonomous
system numbers. System numbers.
For IP address space, the authoritative registration data service is For IP address space, the authoritative registration data service is
found by doing a longest match of the target address with the values found by doing a longest match of the target address with the values
of the arrays in the corresponding Address Space RDAP Bootstrap of the arrays in the corresponding RDAP Bootstrap Service Registry
Service registry. The longest match is done the same way as for for Address Space. The longest match is done the same way as for
routing: the addresses are converted in binary form and then the routing: the addresses are converted in binary form and then the
binary strings are compared to find the longest match up to the binary strings are compared to find the longest match up to the
specified prefix length. The values contained in the second element specified prefix length. The values contained in the second element
of the array are the base RDAP URLs as described in of the array are the base RDAP URLs as described in [RFC7482]. The
[I-D.ietf-weirds-rdap-query]. The longest match method enables longest match method enables covering prefixes of a larger address
covering prefixes of a larger address space pointing to one base RDAP space pointing to one base RDAP URL while more specific prefixes
URL while more specific prefixes within the covering prefix are being within the covering prefix are being served by another base RDAP URL.
served by another base RDAP URL.
5.1. IPv4 Address Space RDAP Bootstrap Service Registry 5.1. Bootstrap Service Registry for IPv4 Address Space
The JSON output of this registry contains IPv4 prefix entries, The JSON output of this registry contains IPv4 prefix entries,
specified in CIDR format [RFC4632] and grouped by RDAP URLs, as shown specified in Classless Inter-domain Routing (CIDR) format [RFC4632]
in this example. and grouped by RDAP URLs, as shown in this example.
{ {
"version": "1.0", "version": "1.0",
"publication": "2024-01-07T10:11:12Z", "publication": "2024-01-07T10:11:12Z",
"description": "RDAP Bootstrap file for example registries.", "description": "RDAP Bootstrap file for example registries.",
"services": [ "services": [
[ [
["1.0.0.0/8", "192.0.0.0/8"], ["1.0.0.0/8", "192.0.0.0/8"],
[ [
"https://rir1.example.com/myrdap/" "https://rir1.example.com/myrdap/"
skipping to change at page 7, line 37 skipping to change at page 7, line 43
] ]
] ]
] ]
} }
For example, a query for "192.0.2.1/25" matches the "192.0.0.0/8" For example, a query for "192.0.2.1/25" matches the "192.0.0.0/8"
entry and the "192.0.2.0/24" entry in the example registry above. entry and the "192.0.2.0/24" entry in the example registry above.
The latter is chosen by the client given the longest match. The base The latter is chosen by the client given the longest match. The base
RDAP URL for this query is then taken from the second element of the RDAP URL for this query is then taken from the second element of the
array, which is an array of base RDAP URLs valid for this entry. The array, which is an array of base RDAP URLs valid for this entry. The
client chooses one of the base URLs from this array; in this example client chooses one of the base URLs from this array; in this example,
it chooses the only one available, "http://example.org/". The it chooses the only one available, "http://example.org/". The
{resource} specified in [I-D.ietf-weirds-rdap-query] is then appended {resource} specified in [RFC7482] is then appended to the base URL to
to the base URL to complete the query. The complete query is then complete the query. The complete query is then "https://example.org/
"https://example.org/ip/192.0.2.1/25". ip/192.0.2.1/25".
5.2. IPv6 Address Space RDAP Bootstrap Service Registry 5.2. Bootstrap Service Registry for IPv6 Address Space
The JSON output of this registry contains IPv6 prefix entries, using The JSON output of this registry contains IPv6 prefix entries, using
[RFC4291] text representation of address prefixes format, grouped by [RFC4291] text representation of the address prefixes format, grouped
base RDAP URLs, as shown in this example. by base RDAP URLs, as shown in this example.
{ {
"version": "1.0", "version": "1.0",
"publication": "2024-01-07T10:11:12Z", "publication": "2024-01-07T10:11:12Z",
"description": "RDAP Bootstrap file for example registries.", "description": "RDAP Bootstrap file for example registries.",
"services": [ "services": [
[ [
["2001:0200::/23", "2001:db8::/32"], ["2001:0200::/23", "2001:db8::/32"],
[ [
"https://rir2.example.com/myrdap/" "https://rir2.example.com/myrdap/"
skipping to change at page 8, line 38 skipping to change at page 8, line 44
] ]
] ]
} }
For example, a query for "2001:0200:1000::/48" matches the For example, a query for "2001:0200:1000::/48" matches the
"2001:0200::/23" entry and the "2001:0200:1000::/36" entry in the "2001:0200::/23" entry and the "2001:0200:1000::/36" entry in the
example registry above. The latter is chosen by the client given the example registry above. The latter is chosen by the client given the
longest match. The base RDAP URL for this query is then taken from longest match. The base RDAP URL for this query is then taken from
the second element of the array, which is an array of base RDAP URLs the second element of the array, which is an array of base RDAP URLs
valid for this entry. The client chooses one of the base URLs from valid for this entry. The client chooses one of the base URLs from
this array; in this example it chooses "https://example.net/ this array; in this example, it chooses "https://example.net/
rdaprir2/" because it's the secure version of the protocol. The rdaprir2/" because it's the secure version of the protocol. The
segment specified in [I-D.ietf-weirds-rdap-query] is then appended to segment specified in [RFC7482] is then appended to the base URL to
the base URL to complete the query. The complete query is therefore complete the query. The complete query is, therefore,
"https://example.net/rdaprir2/ip/2001:0200:1000::/48". If the target "https://example.net/rdaprir2/ip/2001:0200:1000::/48". If the target
RDAP server does not answer, the client can then use another URL RDAP server does not answer, the client can then use another URL
prefix from the array. prefix from the array.
5.3. Autonomous Systems RDAP Bootstrap Service Registry 5.3. Bootstrap Service Registry for AS Number Space
The JSON output of this contains Autonomous Systems Number Ranges The JSON output of this contains Autonomous Systems number ranges
entries, grouped by base RDAP URLs, as shown in this example. The entries, grouped by base RDAP URLs, as shown in this example. The
Entry Array is an array containing the list of AS number ranges Entry Array is an array containing the list of AS number ranges
served by the base RDAP URLs found in the second element. The array served by the base RDAP URLs found in the second element. The array
always contains two AS numbers represented in decimal format which always contains two AS numbers represented in decimal format that
represents the range of AS Numbers between the two elements of the represents the range of AS numbers between the two elements of the
array. A single AS number is represented as a range of two identical array. A single AS number is represented as a range of two identical
AS numbers. AS numbers.
{ {
"version": "1.0", "version": "1.0",
"publication": "2024-01-07T10:11:12Z", "publication": "2024-01-07T10:11:12Z",
"description": "RDAP Bootstrap file for example registries.", "description": "RDAP Bootstrap file for example registries.",
"services": [ "services": [
[ [
["2045-2045"], ["2045-2045"],
skipping to change at page 9, line 39 skipping to change at page 9, line 47
"https://example.net/rdaprir2/" "https://example.net/rdaprir2/"
] ]
] ]
] ]
} }
For example, a query for AS 65411 matches the 64512-65534 entry in For example, a query for AS 65411 matches the 64512-65534 entry in
the example registry above. The base RDAP URL for this query is then the example registry above. The base RDAP URL for this query is then
taken from the second element of the array, which is an array of base taken from the second element of the array, which is an array of base
RDAP URLs valid for this entry. The client chooses one of the base RDAP URLs valid for this entry. The client chooses one of the base
URLs from this array; in this example it chooses URLs from this array; in this example, it chooses
"https://example.net/rdaprir2/". The segment specified in "https://example.net/rdaprir2/". The segment specified in [RFC7482]
[I-D.ietf-weirds-rdap-query] is then appended to the base URL to is then appended to the base URL to complete the query. The complete
complete the query. The complete query is therefore query is, therefore, "https://example.net/rdaprir2/autnum/65411". If
"https://example.net/rdaprir2/autnum/65411". If the server does not the server does not answer, the client can then use another URL
answer, the client can then use another URL prefix from the array. prefix from the array.
6. Entity 6. Entity
Entities (such as contacts, registrants or registrars) can be queried Entities (such as contacts, registrants, or registrars) can be
by handle as described in [I-D.ietf-weirds-rdap-query]. Since there queried by handle as described in [RFC7482]. Since there is no
is no global namespace for entities, this document does not describe global namespace for entities, this document does not describe how to
how to find the authoritative RDAP server for entities. It is find the authoritative RDAP server for entities. However, it is
possible however that, if the entity identifier was received from a possible that, if the entity identifier was received from a previous
previous query, the same RDAP server could be queried for that entity query, the same RDAP server could be queried for that entity, or the
or the entity identifier itself is a fully referenced URL that can be entity identifier itself is a fully referenced URL that can be
queried. queried.
7. Non-existent Entries or RDAP URL Values 7. Non-existent Entries or RDAP URL Values
The registries may not contain the requested value. In these cases, The registries may not contain the requested value. In these cases,
there is no known RDAP server for that requested value and the client there is no known RDAP server for that requested value, and the
SHOULD provide an appropriate error message to the user. client SHOULD provide an appropriate error message to the user.
8. Deployment and Implementation Considerations 8. Deployment and Implementation Considerations
This method relies on the fact that RDAP clients are fetching the This method relies on the fact that RDAP clients are fetching the
IANA registries to then find the servers locally. Clients SHOULD NOT IANA registries to then find the servers locally. Clients SHOULD NOT
fetch the registry on every RDAP request. Clients SHOULD cache the fetch the registry on every RDAP request. Clients SHOULD cache the
registry, but use underlying protocol signalling, such as the HTTP registry, but use underlying protocol signaling, such as the HTTP
Expires header field [RFC7234], to identify when it is time to Expires header field [RFC7234], to identify when it is time to
refresh the cached registry. refresh the cached registry.
If the query data does not match any entry in the client cached If the query data does not match any entry in the client cached
registry, then the client may implement various methods, such as the registry, then the client may implement various methods, such as the
following: following:
o In the case of a domain object, the client may first query the DNS o In the case of a domain object, the client may first query the DNS
to see if the respective entry has been delegated or if it is to see if the respective entry has been delegated or if it is
mistyped information by the user. The DNS query could be to fetch mistyped information by the user. The DNS query could be to fetch
the NS records for the TLD domain. If the DNS answer is negative, the NS records for the TLD domain. If the DNS answer is negative,
then there is no need to fetch the new version of the registry. then there is no need to fetch the new version of the registry.
However, if the DNS answer is positive, this may mean that the However, if the DNS answer is positive, this may mean that the
currently cached registry is no longer current. The client could currently cached registry is no longer current. The client could
then fetch the registry, parse and then do the normal matching as then fetch the registry, parse, and then do the normal matching as
specified above. This method may not work for all types of RDAP specified above. This method may not work for all types of RDAP
objects. objects.
o If the client knows the existence of an RDAP aggregator or o If the client knows the existence of an RDAP aggregator or
redirector and its associated base URL, and trusts that service, redirector and its associated base URL, and trusts that service,
then it could send the query to the redirector, which would then it could send the query to the redirector, which would
redirect the client if it knows the authoritative server that redirect the client if it knows the authoritative server that
client has not found. client has not found.
Some authorities of registration data may work together on sharing Some authorities of registration data may work together on sharing
their information for a common service, including mutual redirection their information for a common service, including mutual redirection
[I-D.ietf-weirds-redirects]. [REDIRECT-RDAP].
When a new object is allocated, such as a new AS range, a new TLD or When a new object is allocated, such as a new AS range, a new TLD, or
a new IP address range, there is no guarantee that this new object a new IP address range, there is no guarantee that this new object
will have an entry in the corresponding bootstrap RDAP registry, will have an entry in the corresponding bootstrap RDAP registry,
since the setup of the RDAP server for this new entry may become live since the setup of the RDAP server for this new entry may become live
and registered later. Therefore, the clients should expect that even and registered later. Therefore, the clients should expect that even
if an object, such as TLD, IP address range or AS range is allocated, if an object, such as TLD, IP address range, or AS range is
the existence of the entry in the corresponding bootstrap registry is allocated, the existence of the entry in the corresponding bootstrap
not guaranteed. registry is not guaranteed.
9. Limitations 9. Limitations
This method does not provide a direct way to find authoritative RDAP This method does not provide a direct way to find authoritative RDAP
servers for any other objects than the ones described in this servers for any other objects than the ones described in this
document. In particular, the following objects are not bootstrapped document. In particular, the following objects are not bootstrapped
with the method described in this document: with the method described in this document:
o entities o entities
skipping to change at page 11, line 35 skipping to change at page 11, line 43
10. Formal Definition 10. Formal Definition
This section is the formal definition of the registries. The This section is the formal definition of the registries. The
structure of JSON objects and arrays using a set of primitive structure of JSON objects and arrays using a set of primitive
elements is defined in [RFC7159]. Those elements are used to elements is defined in [RFC7159]. Those elements are used to
describe the JSON structure of the registries. describe the JSON structure of the registries.
10.1. Imported JSON Terms 10.1. Imported JSON Terms
o OBJECT: a JSON object, defined in Section 2.2 of [RFC7159] o OBJECT: a JSON object, defined in Section 4 of [RFC7159]
o MEMBER: a member of a JSON object, defined in Section 2.2 of o MEMBER: a member of a JSON object, defined in Section 4 of
[RFC7159] [RFC7159]
o MEMBER-NAME: the name of a MEMBER, defined as a "string" in o MEMBER-NAME: the name of a MEMBER, defined as a "string" in
Section 2.2 of [RFC7159] Section 4 of [RFC7159]
o MEMBER-VALUE: the value of a MEMBER, defined as a "value" in o MEMBER-VALUE: the value of a MEMBER, defined as a "value" in
Section 2.2 of [RFC7159] Section 4 of [RFC7159]
o ARRAY: an array, defined in Section 2.3 of [RFC7159] o ARRAY: an array, defined in Section 5 of [RFC7159]
o ARRAY-VALUE: an element of an ARRAY, defined in Section 2.3 of o ARRAY-VALUE: an element of an ARRAY, defined in Section 5 of
[RFC7159] [RFC7159]
o STRING: a "string" as defined in Section 2.5 of [RFC7159] o STRING: a "string", as defined in Section 7 of [RFC7159]
10.2. Registry Syntax 10.2. Registry Syntax
Using the above terms for the JSON structures, the syntax of a Using the above terms for the JSON structures, the syntax of a
registry is defined as follows: registry is defined as follows:
o rdap-bootstrap-registry: an OBJECT containing a MEMBER version and o rdap-bootstrap-registry: an OBJECT containing a MEMBER version and
a MEMBER publication and a optional MEMBER description and a a MEMBER publication, an optional MEMBER description, and a MEMBER
MEMBER services-list services-list
o version: a MEMBER with MEMBER-NAME "version" and MEMBER-VALUE a o version: a MEMBER with MEMBER-NAME "version" and MEMBER-VALUE a
STRING STRING
o publication: a MEMBER with MEMBER-NAME "publication" and MEMBER- o publication: a MEMBER with MEMBER-NAME "publication" and MEMBER-
VALUE a STRING VALUE a STRING
o description: a MEMBER with MEMBER-NAME "description" and MEMBER- o description: a MEMBER with MEMBER-NAME "description" and MEMBER-
VALUE a STRING VALUE a STRING
skipping to change at page 12, line 43 skipping to change at page 13, line 8
o entry: a STRING o entry: a STRING
o service-uri-list: an ARRAY, where each ARRAY-VALUE is a service- o service-uri-list: an ARRAY, where each ARRAY-VALUE is a service-
uri uri
o service-uri: a STRING o service-uri: a STRING
11. Security Considerations 11. Security Considerations
By providing a bootstrap method to find RDAP servers, this document By providing a bootstrap method to find RDAP servers, this document
helps to ensure that the end-users will get the RDAP data from an helps to ensure that the end users will get the RDAP data from an
authoritative source, instead of from rogue sources. The method has authoritative source, instead of from rogue sources. The method has
the same security properties as the RDAP protocols themselves. The the same security properties as the RDAP protocols themselves. The
transport used to access the registries could be more secure by using transport used to access the registries can be more secure by using
TLS [RFC5246] if IANA supports it. TLS [RFC5246], which IANA supports.
Additional considerations on using RDAP are described in Additional considerations on using RDAP are described in [RFC7481].
[I-D.ietf-weirds-rdap-sec]
12. IANA Considerations 12. IANA Considerations
IANA is requested to make the RDAP Bootstrap Services Registries, IANA has created the RDAP Bootstrap Services Registries, listed
created below, available as JSON objects. The contents of these below, and made them available as JSON objects. The contents of
registries are described in Section 3, Section 4 and Section 5, with these registries are described in Section 3, Section 4, and
the formal syntax specified in Section 10. Section 5, with the formal syntax specified in Section 10.
The process for adding or updating entries in these registries The process for adding or updating entries in these registries
differs from the normal IANA registry processes: these registries are differs from the normal IANA registry processes: these registries are
generated from the data, processes, and policies maintained by IANA generated from the data, processes, and policies maintained by IANA
in their allocation registries (([ipv4reg], [ipv6reg], [asreg], and in their allocation registries ([ipv4reg], [ipv6reg], [asreg], and
[domainreg])), with the addition of new RDAP server information. [domainreg]), with the addition of new RDAP server information.
IANA is expected to create and update RDAP Bootstrap Services IANA will create and update RDAP Bootstrap Services Registries
Registries entries from the allocation registries as those registries entries from the allocation registries as those registries are
are updated. updated.
This document does not change any policies related to the allocation This document does not change any policies related to the allocation
registries, but IANA will need to provide a mechanism for collecting registries; IANA has provided a mechanism for collecting the RDAP
the RDAP server information. The RDAP Bootstrap Services Registries server information. The RDAP Bootstrap Services Registries will
will start empty and will be gradually populated as registrants of start empty and will be gradually populated as registrants of domains
domains and address spaces provide RDAP server information to IANA. and address spaces provide RDAP server information to IANA.
IANA is asked to create a new top-level category on the Protocol
Registries page, http://www.iana.org/protocols . The group will be
called "Registration Data Access Protocol (RDAP) Registries". Each
of the RDAP Bootstrap Services Registries needs to be made available
for general public on-demand download in the JSON format, and that
registry's URI will be listed directly on the Protocol Registries
page, in addition to being linked from the registry's name. Those
entries in the new category might look like this:
------------------------------
Registration Data Access Protocol (RDAP)
Bootstrap Service Registry RFC xxxx
for IPv4 Address Space http://iana URI for IPv4 bootstrap
Bootstrap Service Registry RFC xxxx
for IPv6 Address Space http://iana URI for IPv6 bootstrap
Bootstrap Service Registry RFC xxxx
for AS Number Space http://iana URI for ASN bootstrap
Bootstrap Service Registry RFC xxxx IANA has created a new top-level category on the Protocol Registries
for Domain Name Space http://iana URI for DN bootstrap page, <http://www.iana.org/protocols>. The group is called
------------------------------ "Registration Data Access Protocol (RDAP)". Each of the RDAP
Bootstrap Services Registries has been made available for general
public on-demand download in the JSON format, and that registry's URI
is listed directly on the Protocol Registries page.
Other normal registries will be added to this group by other Other normal registries will be added to this group by other
documents, but it is important that the URIs for these registries be documents, but the reason the URIs for these registries are clearly
clearly listed on the main page, to make those URIs obvious to listed on the main page is to make those URIs obvious to implementers
implementors -- these are registries that will be accessed by -- these are registries that will be accessed by software, as well as
software, as well as reference information for humans. by humans using them for reference information.
Because these registries will be accessed by software, the download Because these registries will be accessed by software, the download
demand for the RDAP Bootstrap Services Registries may be unusually demand for the RDAP Bootstrap Services Registries may be unusually
high compared to normal IANA registries. The technical high compared to normal IANA registries. The technical
infrastructure by which registries are published will need to be infrastructure by which registries are published will need to be
reviewed, and might need to be augmented. reviewed and might need to be augmented.
As discussed in Section Section 8, software that accesses these
registries will depend on the HTTP Expires header field to limit
their query rate. It is, therefore, important for that header field
to be properly set to provide timely information as the registries
change, while maintaining a reasonable load on the IANA servers.
The HTTP Content-Type returned to clients accessing these JSON- As discussed in Section 8, software that accesses these registries
formatted registries MUST be "application/json", as defined in will depend on the HTTP Expires header field to limit their query
[RFC7159]. rate. It is, therefore, important for that header field to be
properly set to provide timely information as the registries change,
while maintaining a reasonable load on the IANA servers. The HTTP
Content-Type returned to clients accessing these JSON- formatted
registries MUST be "application/json", as defined in [RFC7159].
Because of how information in the RDAP Bootstrap Services Registries Because of how information in the RDAP Bootstrap Services Registries
is grouped and formatted, the registry entries may not be sortable. is grouped and formatted, the registry entries may not be sortable.
It is therefore not required or expected that the entries be sorted It is, therefore, not required or expected that the entries be sorted
in any way. in any way.
12.1. IPv4 Address Space RDAP Bootstrap Service Registry 12.1. Bootstrap Service Registry for IPv4 Address Space
Entries in this registry contain at least the following: Entries in this registry contain at least the following:
o a CIDR [RFC4632] specification of the network block being o a CIDR [RFC4632] specification of the network block being
registered registered.
o one or more URLs that provide the RDAP service regarding this o one or more URLs that provide the RDAP service regarding this
registration. registration.
12.2. IPv6 Address Space RDAP Bootstrap Service Registry 12.2. Bootstrap Service Registry for IPv6 Address Space
Entries in this registry contain at least the following: Entries in this registry contain at least the following:
o an IPv6 prefix [RFC4291] specification of the network block being o an IPv6 prefix [RFC4291] specification of the network block being
registered registered.
o one or more URLs that provide the RDAP service regarding this o one or more URLs that provide the RDAP service regarding this
registration. registration.
12.3. Autonomous System Number Space RDAP Bootstrap Service Registry 12.3. Bootstrap Service Registry for AS Number Space
Entries in this registry contain at least the following: Entries in this registry contain at least the following:
o a range of Autonomous System numbers being registered o a range of Autonomous System numbers being registered.
o one or more URLs that provide the RDAP service regarding this o one or more URLs that provide the RDAP service regarding this
registration. registration.
12.4. Domain Name Space RDAP Bootstrap Service Registry 12.4. Bootstrap Service Registry for Domain Name Space
Entries in this registry contain at least the following: Entries in this registry contain at least the following:
o a domain name attached to the root being registered o a domain name attached to the root being registered.
o one or more URLs that provide the RDAP service regarding this o one or more URLs that provide the RDAP service regarding this
registration. registration.
13. Acknowledgements 13. References
The WEIRDS working group had multiple discussions on this topic,
including a session during IETF 84, where various methods such as in-
DNS and others were debated. The idea of using IANA registries was
discovered by the editor during discussions with his colleagues as
well as by a comment from Andy Newton. All the people involved in
these discussions are herein acknowledged. Linlin Zhou, Jean-
Philippe Dionne, John Levine, Kim Davies, Ernie Dainow, Scott
Hollenbeck, Arturo Servin, Andy Newton, Murray Kucherawy, Tom
Harrison, Naoki Kambe, Alexander Mayrhofer, Edward Lewis, Pete
Resnick, Alessandro Vesely, Bert Greevenbosch, Barry Leiba, Jari
Arkko, Kathleen Moriaty, Stephen Farrell, Richard Barnes, Jean-
Francois Tremblay have provided input and suggestions to this
document. Guillaume Leclanche was a co-editor of this document for
some revisions; his support is therein acknowledged and greatly
appreciated. The section on formal definition was inspired by
section 6.2 of [RFC7071].
14. References
14.1. Normative References 13.1. Normative References
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.
[RFC3339] Klyne, G., Ed. and C. Newman, "Date and Time on the [RFC3339] Klyne, G. and C. Newman, "Date and Time on the Internet:
Internet: Timestamps", RFC 3339, July 2002. Timestamps", RFC 3339, July 2002,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3339>.
[RFC4291] Hinden, R. and S. Deering, "IP Version 6 Addressing [RFC4291] Hinden, R. and S. Deering, "IP Version 6 Addressing
Architecture", RFC 4291, February 2006. Architecture", RFC 4291, February 2006,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4291>.
[RFC4632] Fuller, V. and T. Li, "Classless Inter-domain Routing [RFC4632] Fuller, V. and T. Li, "Classless Inter-domain Routing
(CIDR): The Internet Address Assignment and Aggregation (CIDR): The Internet Address Assignment and Aggregation
Plan", BCP 122, RFC 4632, August 2006. Plan", BCP 122, RFC 4632, August 2006,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4632>.
[RFC5890] Klensin, J., "Internationalized Domain Names for [RFC5890] Klensin, J., "Internationalized Domain Names for
Applications (IDNA): Definitions and Document Framework", Applications (IDNA): Definitions and Document Framework",
RFC 5890, August 2010. RFC 5890, August 2010,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5890>.
[RFC7159] Bray, T., "The JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) Data
Interchange Format", RFC 7159, March 2014.
14.2. Non-Normative References
[I-D.ietf-weirds-json-response]
Newton, A. and S. Hollenbeck, "JSON Responses for the
Registration Data Access Protocol (RDAP)", draft-ietf-
weirds-json-response-13 (work in progress), December 2014.
[I-D.ietf-weirds-rdap-query] [RFC7159] Bray, T., Ed., "The JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) Data
Newton, A. and S. Hollenbeck, "Registration Data Access Interchange Format", RFC 7159, March 2014,
Protocol Query Format", draft-ietf-weirds-rdap-query-16 <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7159>.
(work in progress), October 2014.
[I-D.ietf-weirds-rdap-sec] 13.2. Informative References
Hollenbeck, S. and N. Kong, "Security Services for the
Registration Data Access Protocol", draft-ietf-weirds-
rdap-sec-12 (work in progress), December 2014.
[I-D.ietf-weirds-redirects] [REDIRECT-RDAP]
Martinez, C., Zhou, L., and G. Rada, "Redirection Service Martinez, C., Zhou, L., and G. Rada, "Redirection Service
for Registration Data Access Protocol", draft-ietf-weirds- for Registration Data Access Protocol", Work in Progress,
redirects-04 (work in progress), July 2014. draft-ietf-weirds-redirects-04, July 2014.
[I-D.ietf-weirds-using-http]
Newton, A., Ellacott, B., and N. Kong, "HTTP usage in the
Registration Data Access Protocol (RDAP)", draft-ietf-
weirds-using-http-15 (work in progress), November 2014.
[RFC5226] Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an
IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 5226,
May 2008.
[RFC5246] Dierks, T. and E. Rescorla, "The Transport Layer Security [RFC5246] Dierks, T. and E. Rescorla, "The Transport Layer Security
(TLS) Protocol Version 1.2", RFC 5246, August 2008. (TLS) Protocol Version 1.2", RFC 5246, August 2008,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5246>.
[RFC7071] Borenstein, N. and M. Kucherawy, "A Media Type for [RFC7071] Borenstein, N. and M. Kucherawy, "A Media Type for
Reputation Interchange", RFC 7071, November 2013. Reputation Interchange", RFC 7071, November 2013,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7071>.
[RFC7234] Fielding, R., Nottingham, M., and J. Reschke, "Hypertext [RFC7234] Fielding, R., Ed., Nottingham, M., Ed., and J. Reschke,
Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Caching", RFC 7234, June Ed., "Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Caching",
2014. RFC 7234, June 2014,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7234>.
[RFC7258] Farrell, S. and H. Tschofenig, "Pervasive Monitoring Is an [RFC7258] Farrell, S. and H. Tschofenig, "Pervasive Monitoring Is an
Attack", BCP 188, RFC 7258, May 2014. Attack", BCP 188, RFC 7258, May 2014,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7258>.
[asreg] Internet Assigned Numbers Authority(IANA), , "Autonomous [RFC7480] Newton, A., Ellacott, B., and N. Kong, "HTTP Usage in the
System (AS) Numbers", <http://www.iana.org/assignments/as- Registration Data Access Protocol (RDAP)", RFC 7480, March
numbers/as-numbers.xml>. 2015, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7480>.
[RFC7481] Hollenbeck, S. and N. Kong, "Security Services for the
Registration Data Access Protocol", RFC 7481, March 2015,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7481>.
[RFC7482] Newton, A. and S. Hollenbeck, "Registration Data Access
Protocol Query Format", RFC 7482, March 2015,
<http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7482>.
[RFC7483] Newton, A. and S. Hollenbeck, "JSON Responses for the
Registration Data Access Protocol (RDAP)", RFC 7483, March
2015, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7483>.
[asreg] IANA, "Autonomous System (AS) Numbers",
<http://www.iana.org/assignments/as-numbers>.
[domainreg] [domainreg]
Internet Assigned Numbers Authority(IANA), , "Root Zone IANA, "Root Zone Database",
Database", <http://www.iana.org/domains/root/db>. <http://www.iana.org/domains/root/db>.
[ipv4reg] Internet Assigned Numbers Authority(IANA), , "IPv4 Address [ipv4reg] IANA, "IPv4 Address Space Registry",
Space", <http://www.iana.org/assignments/ipv4-address- <http://www.iana.org/assignments/ipv4-address-space>.
space/ipv4-address-space.xml>.
[ipv6reg] Internet Assigned Numbers Authority(IANA), , "IPv6 Global [ipv6reg] IANA, "IPv6 Global Unicast Address Assignments",
Unicast Address Assignments", <http://www.iana.org/assignments/
<http://www.iana.org/assignments/ipv6-unicast-address- ipv6-unicast-address-assignments>.
assignments/ipv6-unicast-address-assignments.xml>.
Acknowledgements
The WEIRDS working group had multiple discussions on this topic,
including a session during IETF 84, where various methods such as
in-DNS and others were debated. The idea of using IANA registries
was discovered by the author during discussions with his colleagues
as well as by a comment from Andy Newton. All the people involved in
these discussions are herein acknowledged. Linlin Zhou, Jean-
Philippe Dionne, John Levine, Kim Davies, Ernie Dainow, Scott
Hollenbeck, Arturo Servin, Andy Newton, Murray Kucherawy, Tom
Harrison, Naoki Kambe, Alexander Mayrhofer, Edward Lewis, Pete
Resnick, Alessandro Vesely, Bert Greevenbosch, Barry Leiba, Jari
Arkko, Kathleen Moriaty, Stephen Farrell, Richard Barnes, and Jean-
Francois Tremblay have provided input and suggestions to this
document. Guillaume Leclanche was a coauthor of this document for
some revisions; his support is therein acknowledged and greatly
appreciated. The section on formal definition was inspired by
Section 6.2 of [RFC7071].
Author's Address Author's Address
Marc Blanchet Marc Blanchet
Viagenie Viagenie
246 Aberdeen 246 Aberdeen
Quebec, QC G1R 2E1 Quebec, QC G1R 2E1
Canada Canada
Email: Marc.Blanchet@viagenie.ca EMail: Marc.Blanchet@viagenie.ca
URI: http://viagenie.ca URI: http://viagenie.ca
 End of changes. 106 change blocks. 
279 lines changed or deleted 249 lines changed or added

This html diff was produced by rfcdiff 1.42. The latest version is available from http://tools.ietf.org/tools/rfcdiff/