draft-ietf-xcon-conference-scenarios-05.txt   rfc4597.txt 
XCON R. Even Network Working Group R. Even
Internet-Draft Polycom Request for Comments: 4597 Polycom
Expires: March 10, 2006 N. Ismail Category: Informational N. Ismail
Cisco Systems, Inc. Cisco Systems, Inc.
September 6, 2005
Conferencing Scenarios Conferencing Scenarios
draft-ietf-xcon-conference-scenarios-05.txt
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Abstract Abstract
This document describes multimedia conferencing scenarios. It This document describes multimedia conferencing scenarios. It
describes both basic and advanced conferencing scenarios involving describes both basic and advanced conferencing scenarios involving
voice, video, text and interactive text sessions. These conferencing voice, video, text, and interactive text sessions. These scenarios
scenarios will help with the definition and evaluation of the will help with the definition and evaluation of the protocols being
protocols being developed in the centralized conferencing XCON developed in the centralized conferencing XCON working group.
working group.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1. Introduction ....................................................3
2. Basic Conferencing scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. Basic Conferencing Scenarios ....................................3
2.1. Ad-hoc conference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2.1. Ad Hoc Conferences .........................................4
2.2. Extension of a Point to point calls to a multipoint 2.2. Extension of a Point-to-Point Call to a Multipoint Call ....4
call . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2.3. Reserved Conferences .......................................4
2.3. Reserved conference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3. Advanced Conferencing Scenarios .................................5
3. Advanced Conferencing scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.1. Extending a Point-to-Point Call to a Multipoint Call .......5
3.1. Extending a point-to-point call to a multipoint call . . . 5 3.2. Lecture Mode Conferences ...................................5
3.2. Lecture mode conferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.3. Conference with Conference-Aware and Unaware Participants ..6
3.3. Conference with conference aware and unaware 3.4. A Reserved or Ad Hoc Conference with
participants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Conference-Aware Participants ..............................6
3.4. A reserved or ad-hoc conference with conference-aware 3.5. Advanced Conference Features ...............................6
participants. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4. Scenarios for Media Policy Control ..............................9
3.5. Advanced conference features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4.1. Video Mixing Scenarios ....................................10
4. Scenarios for media policy control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 4.2. Typical Video Conferencing Scenario .......................11
4.1. Video mixing scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 4.3. Conference Sidebar Scenario ...............................11
4.2. Typical video conferencing scenario . . . . . . . . . . . 10 4.4. Coaching Scenario .........................................12
4.3. Conference Sidebar scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 4.5. Presentation and Q & A Session ............................12
4.4. Coaching scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 4.6. Presence-Enabled Ad Hoc Conference ........................13
4.5. Presentation and QA session . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 4.7. Group Chat Text Conferencing ..............................13
4.6. Presence-enabled ad-hoc conference . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 4.8. Interactive Text ..........................................13
4.7. Group chat text conferencing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 4.9. Moderated Group Chat ......................................14
4.8. Interactive text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 4.10. Text Sidebars ............................................14
4.9. Moderated group chat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 4.11. Conference Announcements .................................14
4.10. Text sidebars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 5. Security Considerations ........................................14
4.11. Conference announcements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 6. Acknowledgements ...............................................15
5. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 7. Informative References .........................................15
6. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
7. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
8. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . . . 16
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
This document describes multimedia conferencing scenarios. The This document describes multimedia conferencing scenarios. The
development of these conferencing scenarios is intended to help with development of these scenarios is intended to help with the
definition and evaluation of the requirements for the centralized definition and evaluation of the requirements for the centralized
conferencing (XCON) working group. Although this document uses some conferencing (XCON) working group. Although this document uses some
definitions and conventions described in the SIP Conferencing definitions and conventions described in the SIP Conferencing
Framework document[1], these scenarios are not SIP-specific. The Framework document [1], these scenarios are not specific to SIP. The
document describes basic and advanced conferencing scenarios. The document describes basic and advanced conferencing scenarios. The
advanced scenarios assume that the user agents support the set of advanced scenarios assume that the user agents support the set of
XCON protocols, identified in the Framework and Data Model for XCON protocols, identified in the Framework and Data Model for
Centralized Conferencing [3], in order to take advantage of the Centralized Conferencing [3], in order to take advantage of the
conference functionality. However, note that many of these features conference functionality. However, note that many of these features
can be implemented today using an IVR or web interface to control the can be implemented today by using an interactive voice response (IVR)
conferencing application. or web interface to control the conferencing application.
The entities comprising the Conferencing System are the conference The entities comprising the Conferencing System are the conference
that is the center point for signaling and the participants. The that is the center point for signaling and the participants. The
participant who initiated the conference is referenced as the participant who initiated the conference is called the initiating
initiating participant. participant.
The scenarios described demonstrate different conferencing services. The scenarios described here demonstrate different conferencing
These conferencing services can be offered in a multimedia services. These services can be offered in a multimedia environment
environment that benefit from having some support in the user agents that benefits from having some support in the user agents that enable
that enable more robust and easier to use conferencing services. It more robust and easier-to-use conferencing services. It is up to the
is up to the conferencing system manufacturers and the conferencing conferencing system manufacturers and the conferencing service
service provider to decide what services can be built and which provider to decide what services can be built and which services are
services are offered to the end users. offered to the end users.
The scenarios describe multimedia examples but they are applicable to The scenarios describe multimedia examples, but they are applicable
audio only as well as for audio and video conferences. to audio only as well as to audio and video conferences.
Multimedia conferences may include any combination of different media Multimedia conferences may include any combination of different media
types like audio, video, text, interactive text, or presentation types such as audio, video, text, interactive text, or presentation
graphics. The conference scenarios are similar but the media graphics. The conference scenarios are similar, but the media
handling may be dependent on the media type. handling may be dependent on the media type.
2. Basic Conferencing scenarios 2. Basic Conferencing Scenarios
These scenarios enable a conference unaware participant to create, These scenarios enable a conference-unaware participant to create,
join and participate in a conference. The participant may use out of join, and participate in a conference. The participant may use out-
band signaling to participate in a conference but this is not a of-band signaling to participate in a conference, but this is not
mandatory requirement. The Conferencing System has all the mandatory. The Conferencing System has all the functionality it
functionality it needs in order to supply the service offered to the needs in order to supply the service offered to the participants.
participants. A typical minimum requirement is that the participant Typical minimum requirements are that the participant support dual-
support DTMF tones/signal or provide voice responses to an IVR tone multi-frequency (DTMF) tones/signal or provide voice responses
system. to an IVR system.
2.1. Ad-hoc conference 2.1. Ad Hoc Conferences
A participant has a service provisioned to him that enables him to A participant has a service provisioned to him that enables him to
start an ad-hoc conference when he calls the Conferencing System. start an ad hoc conference when he calls the Conferencing System.
When the participant wants to start a conference he calls the When the participant wants to start a conference, he calls the
conference service. The participant may be identified by different conference service. The participant may be identified by different
means including request destination, authenticated identity, or an means, including request destination, authenticated identity, or an
IVR system using DTMF. The conference is created automatically with IVR system using DTMF. The conference is created automatically with
the predefined functionality. The participant who has such a service the predefined functionality. The participant who has such a service
notifies the other participants how to call the conference via notifies the other participants how to call the conference via
external means such as instant message or email. The participant may external means such as instant message or email.
have the functionality of a Conferencing System and thus can create
ad-hoc conference using his own user agent functionality. An example The participant may have Conferencing System functionality and thus
of such a conference is an audio conference initiated by one of the can create an ad hoc conference using his own user agent. An example
participants who has a conference service that enables him to start a of such a conference is an audio conference initiated by a
participant who has a conference service that enables him to start a
conference when he calls a specific URI. The conference may be conference when he calls a specific URI. The conference may be
created by the first person calling this URI or it may be created created by the first person calling this URI, or it may be created
only after the owner is authenticated using an IVR system. In the only after the owner is authenticated using an IVR system. In the
latter case, the other participants may get an announcement and are latter case, the other participants may get an announcement and are
placed on hold if they call the conference before the owner. placed on hold if they call the conference before the owner.
2.2. Extension of a Point to point calls to a multipoint call 2.2. Extension of a Point-to-Point Call to a Multipoint Call
This is a basic case. The initiating participant (PA) is in a point This is a basic case. The initiating participant (PA) is in a
to point call with another participant (PB). PA wants to add a third point-to-point call with another participant (PB). PA wants to add a
participant (PC) to the call. The initiating participant (PA) cannot third participant (PC) to the call. PA cannot provide the
provide the Conferencing System functionality on his user agent nor Conferencing System functionality on his user agent nor can the other
can the other participant (PB). PA and PB do not supports call participant PB. PA and PB do not support call transfer. PA has a
transfer. PA has a conferencing service using the methods described conferencing service that uses the methods described in 2.1. PA
in 2.1. PA conveys the conference information to PB in the point-to- conveys the conference information to PB in the point-to-point call.
point call. Both participant disconnect and call the Conferencing Both participants disconnect and call the Conferencing System. The
System. The Conferencing System may support dial out, for example Conferencing System may support dial-out (for example, via DTMF),
via DTMF, allowing the initiating participant to call the third party allowing the initiating participant PA to call the third party PC
through the Conferencing System. through the Conferencing System.
2.3. Reserved conference 2.3. Reserved Conferences
The reservation for this type of conference is typically done by an The reservation for this type of conference is typically done by an
out of band mechanism and in advance of the actual conference time. out-of-band mechanism in advance of the actual conference time. The
The conference identification, which may be a URI or a phone number conference identification, which may be a URI or a phone number with
with a pin number, is allocated by the reservation system. It is a pin number, is allocated by the reservation system. It is sent to
sent to all participants using email, IM, etc. The participants join all participants through email, IM, etc. The participants join by
using the conference identification. The conference identification using the conference identification. The conference identification
must be routable enabling the allocation of a conference with free must be routable, enabling the allocation of a conference with free
resources at the time when the conference actually run. The resources at the time when the conference actually runs. The
Conferencing System can also dial out to the conference participants. Conferencing System can also dial out to the conference participants.
The participants may not be informed that they are in a conference The participants may not be informed that they are in a conference,
since their User Agent is not conference aware. The participants may since their User Agent is not conference aware. The participants may
know, via announcement from the Conferencing System, that they are in know, via announcement from the Conferencing System, that they are in
a conference and who the other participants are. a conference and who the other participants are.
3. Advanced Conferencing scenarios 3. Advanced Conferencing Scenarios
These scenarios assume user agents that support at least call These scenarios assume user agents that support at least call
transfer service and a way to communicate information on events from transfer service and a way to communicate information on events from
the Conferencing System to the user agent. The Conferencing System the Conferencing System to the user agent. The Conferencing System
may have the ability to discover the capabilities of the may have the ability to discover the capabilities of the
participants, for example, to identify if they support call transfer. participants, for example, whether they support call transfer. This
This section specifies in each scenario the dependencies. An section specifies the dependencies in each scenario. An advanced
advanced conference can be initiated only by an user agent that has conference can be initiated only by a user agent that has advanced
advanced features, but some user agents in the conference may have features, but some user agents in the conference may have less
less functionality. functionality.
3.1. Extending a point-to-point call to a multipoint call 3.1. Extending a Point-to-Point Call to a Multipoint Call
The initiating participant is in a point-to-point call and wants to The initiating participant PA is in a point-to-point call and wants
add a third participant. The initiating participant can start a to add a third participant. PA can start a multipoint call on a
multipoint call on a conferencing bridge known to him. The extension conferencing bridge known to him. The extension can be without
can be without consultation, which means that he moves the point-to- consultation, which means that PA moves the point-to-point call to
point call to the Conferencing System and then adds the third party the Conferencing System and then adds the third party (this can be
(this can be done in various ways). Alternatively the extension can done in various ways). Alternatively the extension can be done with
be done with consultation, which means that he puts his current party consultation, which means that PA puts his current party on hold,
on hold, calls the third party and asks him to join the conference, calls the third party, asks him to join the conference, and then
and then transfers all the participants to the Conferencing System. transfers all the participants to the Conferencing System.
3.2. Lecture mode conferences 3.2. Lecture Mode Conferences
This conference scenario enables a conference with a lecturer who This conference scenario enables a conference with a lecturer who
presents a topic and can allow questions. The lecturer needs to know presents a topic and can allow questions. The lecturer needs to know
who the participants are and to be able to give them the right to who the participants are and needs to be able to give them the right
speak. The right to speak can be based on floor control or an out of to speak. The right to speak can be based on floor control or an
band mechanism. out-of-band mechanism.
In general, the lecturer is seen/heard by the conference participants In general, the lecturer is seen/heard by the conference participants
and often shares a presentation or application with the other and often shares a presentation or application with the other
participants. participants.
A participant joining this type of conference can get the identity of A participant joining this type of conference can get the identity of
the lecturer and often the identities of the audience participants. the lecturer and often the identities of the audience participants.
This type of conference may have multiple media streams. For This type of conference may have multiple media streams. For
example, if simultaneous language translation is available, a example, if simultaneous language translation is available, a
participant has the option of selecting the appropriate language participant has the option of selecting the appropriate language
audio stream. Multiple video streams could include the speaker's audio stream. Multiple video streams could include the speaker's
face and a whiteboard/demonstration stream. face and a whiteboard/demonstration stream.
3.3. Conference with conference aware and unaware participants 3.3. Conference with Conference-Aware and Unaware Participants
A conference can include participants that are a mix of conference A conference can include a mix of participants that are conference-
aware and unaware participants. Those participants may be conference aware and unaware. Conference-unaware participants may be using a
unaware participants using a proxy function that proxies the advanced proxy function that proxies the advanced functionality between the
functionality between the different protocols and the Conferencing different protocols and the Conferencing System. For example, an IVR
System. For example, an IVR system or a web page interface can be system or a web page interface can be used to provide additional
used to provide additional functionality. functionality.
3.4. A reserved or ad-hoc conference with conference-aware 3.4. A Reserved or Ad Hoc Conference with Conference-Aware Participants
participants.
The initiating participant calls the Conferencing System using, for In order to start the conference, the initiating participant calls
example, a unique identifier in order to start the conference. The the Conferencing System using, for example, a unique identifier. The
Conferencing System may use some authenticating method to qualify the Conferencing System may use some authenticating method to qualify the
participant. The other participants may call the Conferencing System participant. The other participants may call the Conferencing System
and join the conference. The Conferencing System is able to find the and join the conference. The Conferencing System is able to find the
capabilities of the participants. In case of a reserved conference capabilities of the participants. In case of a reserved conference,
the Conferencing System starts the conference at the scheduled time. the Conferencing System starts the conference at the scheduled time.
The participants may join by calling the conference URI or the The participants may join by calling the conference URI, or the
Conferencing System may call them. The conference may have privilege Conferencing System may call them. The conference may have privilege
levels associated with a specific conference or participant. The levels associated with a specific conference or participant. The
privileges are for the initiating participant and for a regular privileges are for the initiating participant and for a regular
participant; the initiating participant may delegate privileges to participant; the initiating participant may delegate privileges to
the other participants. The privileges allow functionality as the other participants. The privileges allow functionality as
defined in the next section. defined in the next section.
3.5. Advanced conference features 3.5. Advanced Conference Features
The following features can be used in all the advanced conferencing The following features can be used in all the advanced conferencing
scenarios. In the examples given in this section, when referring to scenarios. In the examples given in this section, when referring to
a participant that has a functionality it means a participant with a participant that has a functionality, it means a participant with
the right privileges. These scenarios may be available in the the right privileges. These scenarios may be available in the
advanced conferencing scenarios and are common in many conferencing advanced conferencing scenarios and are common in many conferencing
applications. This is not a requirement list, rather some examples applications. This is not a requirement list, rather some examples
of how specific functions may be used in a conference. of how specific functions may be used in a conference.
o Add Participants - A participant may add a new participant to the o Add Participants - A participant may add a new participant to the
conference. This can be done, for example, by instructing the conference. This can be done, for example, by instructing the
Conferencing System to call the participant or by the first Conferencing System to call the participant or by the first
participant calling the new participant and pointing him to the participant calling the new participant and pointing him to the
conference. conference.
skipping to change at page 6, line 47 skipping to change at page 6, line 46
the right privileges. These scenarios may be available in the the right privileges. These scenarios may be available in the
advanced conferencing scenarios and are common in many conferencing advanced conferencing scenarios and are common in many conferencing
applications. This is not a requirement list, rather some examples applications. This is not a requirement list, rather some examples
of how specific functions may be used in a conference. of how specific functions may be used in a conference.
o Add Participants - A participant may add a new participant to the o Add Participants - A participant may add a new participant to the
conference. This can be done, for example, by instructing the conference. This can be done, for example, by instructing the
Conferencing System to call the participant or by the first Conferencing System to call the participant or by the first
participant calling the new participant and pointing him to the participant calling the new participant and pointing him to the
conference. conference.
o Delete Participant - A participant may delete participants from o Delete Participant - A participant may delete participants from
the conference if he can identify them. the conference if he can identify them.
o Changing User Agent/Modes - During the course of a conference, a o Changing User Agent/Modes - During the course of a conference, a
participant may switch between user agents with different participant may switch between user agents with different
capabilities while still remaining part of the conference. For capabilities while still remaining part of the conference. For
example, a participant may initially join using a mobile phone and example, a participant may initially join using a mobile phone and
then switch to a desk top phone. Or a participant may join with a then switch to a desk top phone. Or a participant may join with a
phone, discover that the conference has video streams available, phone, discover that the conference has video streams available,
and switch to a video phone. and switch to a video phone.
o Changing Media - During the conference a participant may be able
o Changing Media - During the conference, a participant may be able
to select different media streams than the one he had when he to select different media streams than the one he had when he
joined the conference. An example is a participant that initially joined the conference. An example is a participant that initially
joined the conference as an audio participant. The participant is joined the conference as an audio participant. The participant is
unable to understand the conversation properly and he learns that unable to understand the conversation properly, and he learns that
there is also an interactive text available, he will ask to there is also an interactive text available. He will ask to
receive also the text stream. receive the text stream also.
o Authenticate participants - A participant can authenticate other o Authenticate participants - A participant can authenticate other
participants who want to join the conference. This can be done, participants who want to join the conference. This can be done,
for example, in a video conferencing session by creating a sidebar for example, in a video conferencing session by creating a sidebar
between the two participants allowing the authenticating between the two participants, allowing the authenticating
participant to talk with the new participant and verify his participant to talk with the new participant and verify his
identity. identity.
o Authorize participants - A participant can authorize other o Authorize participants - A participant can authorize other
participants in order to allow them to join the conference. This participants in order to allow them to join the conference. This
can be done implicitly by assigning a password to the conference can be done implicitly by assigning a password to the conference
or to each participant and letting the Conferencing System decide or to each participant and letting the Conferencing System decide
if the new participant is allowed to join. the authorization can if the new participant is allowed to join. The authorization can
be done explicitly by directing the entered password to the be done explicitly by directing the entered password to the
initiating participant who will authorize each participant. The initiating participant who will authorize each participant. The
conferencing system may use an authentication mechanism to conferencing system may use an authentication mechanism to
authenticate the participants. authenticate the participants.
o Controlling the presentation of media - During the conference the
o Controlling the presentation of media - During the conference, the
participant may be able to manage whose media is being sent to participant may be able to manage whose media is being sent to
each participant. For example, the participant may be able to each participant. For example, the participant may be able to
decide that he wants to be the speaker and all the rest are decide that he wants to be the speaker and all the rest to be
listeners; he may also specify whose media he wants to receive. listeners; he may also specify whose media he wants to receive.
The participant may be able to mute a media stream during the The participant may be able to mute a media stream during the
conference. conference.
o Giving privileges - The participant may want, during the
conference, to give a privilege to another participant. The o Giving privileges - During the conference, the participant may
assigning of privileges may be implicit when requested or explicit want to give a privilege to another participant. The assigning of
by asking the participant to grant a privilege. privileges may be implicit when requested or explicit by asking
the participant to grant a privilege.
o Side conferences or sidebars - The participant may want to create o Side conferences or sidebars - The participant may want to create
a side conference that include some of the main conference a side conference that include some of the main conference
participants. When the side conference is done the participants participants. When the side conference is finished, the
return to the main conference. A sidebar may have the same participants return to the main conference. A sidebar may have
functionality as the main conference. There can be several the same functionality as the main conference. There can be
sidebars scenarios: several sidebar scenarios:
1. Basic sidebar is based on the capabilities of two participants 1. A basic sidebar requires that two participants have the
to have two calls at the same time, with a point to point call capability to have two calls at the same time, with a point-
in parallel to the main conference. It is user agent to-point call in parallel to the main conference. It is user
implementation specific whether to automatically mix both agent implementation-specific whether both calls' streams are
call's streams or allow the participant to manually switch mixed automatically or the participants are allowed to
between them. manually switch between them.
2. Conferencing System based sidebar uses the Conferencing System 2. A conferencing-system-based sidebar uses the Conferencing
to create the sidebar and compose the relevant sidebar stream System to create the sidebar and compose the relevant sidebar
mixes. These mixes can include the main conference as an stream mixes. These mixes can include the main conference as
incoming stream to the mix. Mechanisms to signal the creation an incoming stream to the mix. Mechanisms to signal the
of the sidebar, invite participants and control the mixes creation of the sidebar, invite participants, and control the
should be available. mixes should be available.
For example, participants in an audio sidebar may not be heard For example, participants in an audio sidebar may not be heard
by the rest of the conference. However, the main conference by the rest of the conference. However, the main conference
audio may be mixed in the sidebar, but at a lower volume, or in audio may be mixed in the sidebar, but at a lower volume, or
a different channel. Another example, a sidebar can have a in a different channel. As another example, a sidebar can
different media type from the main conference; a video call can have a different media type from the main conference: a video
have an audio sidebar where the other participants can see the call can have an audio sidebar where the other participants
sidebar participants talking but can not hear them; or an audio can see the sidebar participants talking but cannot hear them;
or video conference may have a text sidebar. or an audio or video conference may have a text sidebar.
o Conference information - When a participant joins the conference
o Conference information - When a participant joins the conference,
he is announced to the participants. An announcement may be he is announced to the participants. An announcement may be
available when he leaves the conference. The participants may available when he leaves the conference. The participants may
query the conferencing system for the current participants of a query the conferencing system for the current participants of a
specific conference. This conference information may include specific conference. This conference information may include
other information, for example, the media streams available in the other information, for example, the media streams available in the
conference. conference.
o Extending of a conference - Reserved conferences and ad-hoc
o Extending of a conference - Reserved conferences and ad hoc
conferences may have a time limit. The Conferencing System conferences may have a time limit. The Conferencing System
informs the participants when the limit is approaching and may informs the participants when the limit is approaching and may
allow the extension of the conference. allow the extension of the conference.
o Adding and removing a media type to the conference - A participant o Adding and removing a media type to the conference - A participant
may want to start a data presentation during a conference. He may may want to start a data presentation during a conference. He may
want to distribute this new media to all the participants. The want to distribute this new media to all the participants. The
participant asks the Conferencing System to start the new media participant asks the Conferencing System to start the new media
channel and to allow him to send data in the new channel. channel and to allow him to send data in the new channel.
o Audio-only participants - In a multimedia conference some of the
o Audio-only participants - In a multimedia conference, some of the
participants who want to join may have no way to send and receive participants who want to join may have no way to send and receive
all the media types. Typically they can send and receive audio. all the media types. Typically, they can send and receive audio.
Such participants join the conference as audio-only participants. Such participants join the conference as audio-only participants.
The general case is that participants may send and receive only The general case is that participants may send and receive only
part of the media streams available in the multi media conference. part of the media streams available in the multi media conference.
o Passive participants - In a conference some participants may be
listeners to all or part of the media streams, but be invisible to o Passive participants - In a conference, some participants may be
all the other participants. listeners to all or part of the media streams, but may be
invisible to all other participants.
o Recorders - A recorder can be added to the conference. A recorder o Recorders - A recorder can be added to the conference. A recorder
can record all streams or a subset of the streams. Recorders may can record all streams or a subset of the streams. Recorders may
be turned on and off during the conference. Recorders may be used be turned on and off during the conference. Recorders may be used
for "role call" scenario in order to record a participant name. for a "role call" scenario in order to record a participant's
This name can be announced at a later stage automatically or based name. This name can be announced at a later stage automatically
on a participant request. A recorder is a case of a passive or based on a participant request. A recorder is a case of a
participant. passive participant.
o Whisper/Private Message - A participant can send a one way message
o Whisper/Private Message - A participant can send a one-way message
(text, audio, or even some other media) to another participant (text, audio, or even some other media) to another participant
that is immediately rendered. This differs from a sidebar in that that is immediately rendered. This differs from a sidebar in that
it is immediate and creates no long-lived session. it is immediate and creates no long-lived session.
o Human operator - A participant may ask for assistance from a human o Human operator - A participant may ask for assistance from a human
operator during the conference. operator during the conference.
4. Scenarios for media policy control 4. Scenarios for Media Policy Control
During a conference media streams may be controlled by authorized During a conference, media streams may be controlled by authorized
participants using either a media control protocol or a third party participants using either a media control protocol or a third-party
application. This section describes some typical media control application. This section describes some typical media control
scenarios. The conference can be of any size. Some of the media scenarios. The conference can be of any size. Some of the media
control scenarios are typical to specific conference sizes. As a control scenarios are typical of specific conference sizes. As a
general rule larger conferences scenarios tend to be more centrally general rule, larger conferences scenarios tend to be more centrally
managed or structured. managed or structured.
The mixing of media in a conference may start when the conference The mixing of media in a conference may start when the conference
starts or when the initiating participant joins. In the later case, starts or when the initiating participant joins. In the later case,
early participant may be put on hold and get "music on hold". early participants may be put on hold and get "music on hold".
The scenarios apply to audio conferences as well as to multimedia The scenarios apply to audio conferences as well as to multimedia
conferences. There are some specific information about the mixed conferences. In the sections below, there is some specific
video layout and about interactive text discussed below. information about the mixed video layout and interactive text.
4.1. Video mixing scenarios 4.1. Video Mixing Scenarios
For video the participant selects one of a set of pre-defined video For video, the participant selects one of a set of predefined video
presentations offered by the server. Each video presentation is presentations offered by the server. Each video presentation is
identified by a textual description as well as an image specifying identified by a textual description as well as an image specifying
how the presentation appears on the screen. In this scenario by how the presentation appears on the screen. In this scenario, by
choosing a video presentation the participant chooses how many video choosing a video presentation, the participant chooses how many video
streams (participants) are viewed at once and the layout of these streams (participants) are viewed at once and the layout of these
video streams on the screen. video streams on the screen.
The contents of each sub-window can be defined by a conference policy The contents of each sub-window can be defined by a conference policy
and/or controlled by authorized participants. It may also be and/or controlled by authorized participants. It may also be
possible to have multiple mixes per conference, possibly as many as possible to have multiple mixes per conference, possibly as many as
there are participants. (Note that the same flexibility may be there are participants. (Note that the same flexibility may be
afforded to audio mixes as well.). afforded to audio mixes as well.)
The following are a list of typical video presentations; there are The following is a list of typical video presentations. Other
other layouts available today in commercial products: layouts are available today in commercial products.
- Single view: This presentation typically shows the video of the - Single view: This presentation typically shows the video of the
loudest speaker loudest speaker.
- Dual View: This presentation shows two streams. If the streams are
to be multiplexed in one image (typical of centralized servers) the
multiplexing can be:
1. Side by side with no altered aspect ratio and hence blanking of - Dual view: This presentation shows two streams. If the streams are
parts of the image might be necessary if the streams are to be to be multiplexed in one image (typical of centralized servers),
combined as one image. the multiplexing can be:
2. Side by side windows with altered aspect ratios and hence 1. Side-by-side windows, with no altered aspect ratio. Thus,
blanking parts of the image is not necessary. The mixer handles the blanking of parts of the image might be necessary if the
cropping of the images. streams are to be combined as one image.
3. One above the other windows with no altered aspect ratio 2. Side-by-side windows, with altered aspect ratios. Thus,
blanking parts of the image is not necessary. The mixer
handles the cropping of the images.
4. One above the other windows with altered aspect ratio 3. One window above the other, with no altered aspect ratio.
4. One window above the other, with altered aspect ratios.
- Quadrate view: This presentation shows 4 streams. If the streams - Quadrate view: This presentation shows 4 streams. If the streams
are multiplexed into one image (centralized server) they are arranged are multiplexed into one image (centralized server), they are
in a 2x2 style. Note that in this style the aspect ratios are arranged in a 2x2 style. Note that in this style the aspect ratios
maintained. are maintained.
- 9 sub-picture view: This presentation shows 9 streams. If the - 9 sub-picture view: This presentation shows 9 streams. If the
streams are to be multiplexed in one image they are arranged in a 3x3 streams are to be multiplexed in one image, they are arranged in a
style. In the multiplexing case cropping is performed under the 3x3 style. In the multiplexing case, cropping is performed under
discretion of the mixer. the discretion of the mixer.
- 16 sub-picture view: This presentation shows 16 streams. If the - 16 sub-picture view: This presentation shows 16 streams. If the
streams are to be multiplexed into one image they are arranged in a streams are to be multiplexed into one image, they are arranged in
4x4 style. In this style the aspect ratios are maintained and no a 4x4 style. In this style, the aspect ratios are maintained, and
cropping or blanking is needed. no cropping or blanking is needed.
- 5+1 sub-picture view: This presentation shows 6 streams. If the - 5+1 sub-picture view: This presentation shows 6 streams. If the
streams are to be multiplexed into one image then the pictures are streams are to be multiplexed into one image, then the pictures are
laid so that one sub-window occupies 4/9 of the screen while the laid so that one sub-window occupies 4/9 of the screen while each
other five occupy 1/9 of the screen each. of the other five occupies 1/9 of the screen.
4.2. Typical video conferencing scenario 4.2. Typical Video Conferencing Scenario
This scenario is known as voice activated video switch. Every This scenario is known as voice-activated video switch. Every
participant hears the N loudest participants but he does not hear participant hears the N loudest participants but does not hear
himself. All the participants see the loudest speaker; the loudest himself. All the participants see the loudest speaker; the loudest
speaker may see the previous loudest speaker. This mode is typical speaker may see the previous loudest speaker. This mode is typical
to small conference. for a small conference.
A participant with proper authorization can exclude one or more A participant with proper authorization can exclude one or more
participants from the audio or video mix. An indication might be participants from the audio or video mix. An indication that they
displayed to the affected participants indicating that they are not are not being seen/heard might be displayed to the affected
being seen/heard. participants.
A participant with proper authorization can manipulate the gain level A participant with proper authorization can manipulate the gain level
associated with one or more audio streams in the mix. associated with one or more audio streams in the mix.
4.3. Conference Sidebar scenario 4.3. Conference Sidebar Scenario
An authorized participant creates a side bar. The participant An authorized participant creates a sidebar. The participant selects
selects whether the sidebar should include the media from the main whether the sidebar should include the media from the main conference
conference or not and the audio gain level associated with the main or not and the audio gain level associated with the main conference
conference audio. audio.
A participant invites participants to the sidebar and upon acceptance A participant invites participants to the sidebar, and upon
they start receiving the sidebar media as specified by the sidebar acceptance they start receiving the sidebar media as specified by the
creator. If the new participant is not a participant of the sidebar creator. If the new participant is not a participant of the
conference, but just the sidebar, the participant only receives the conference, but is just a participant of the sidebar, the participant
sidebar media without the media of the main conference. only receives the sidebar media without the media of the main
conference.
A participant with the right authorization can move another A participant with the right authorization can move another
participant into the sidebar with no indication, in which case the participant into the sidebar with no indication, in which case the
participant suddenly start receiving the sidebar media. participant suddenly starts receiving the sidebar media.
Sidebar participants with the right authorization can select to hear Sidebar participants with the right authorization can select to hear
or not hear the main conference audio mixed with the sidebar audio or not to hear the main conference audio mixed with the sidebar
audio.
A participant can be a participant to more than one sidebar but can A participant can be a participant to more than one sidebar but can
only actively participate in one. only actively participate in one.
A participant can jump back and forth between the main conference and A participant can jump back and forth between the main conference and
one or more sidebars. one or more sidebars.
4.4. Coaching scenario 4.4. Coaching Scenario
This is a call center or a remote training session where there is a This is a call center or a remote training session where there is a
supervisor who can monitor the conference. There are the supervised supervisor who can monitor the conference. The supervised
participants that may be the call center operators or the teachers. participants may be the call center operators or the teachers. A
A participant in the conference may be a supervised participant or a participant in the conference may be a supervised participant or a
"customer". "customer".
The supervisor is a hidden participant and is not part of the The supervisor is a hidden participant and is not part of the
participant roster. participant roster.
The supervised participants might get an announcement/tone indicating The supervised participants might get an announcement/tone indicating
that the supervisor has joined. The other participants do not hear that the supervisor has joined. The other participants do not hear
the announcement. the announcement.
The supervisor listens to / sees the session but can only be heard / The supervisor listens to or sees the session but can only be heard
seen by the supervised participant. or seen by the supervised participant.
The supervisor can become a normal participant, in which case the The supervisor can become a normal participant, in which case the
participants see the supervisor as part of the roster and start participants see the supervisor as part of the roster and start
hearing and seeing him. hearing and seeing him.
4.5. Presentation and QA session 4.5. Presentation and Q & A Session
An example is an earning call scenario in which a group of presenters An example is an earning call scenario in which a group of presenters
deliver material to a group of people. After the presentation is delivers material to a group of people. After the presentation is
finished a QA session is opened. finished, a Q & A session is opened.
The conference is created as a panel and the panel participants are The conference is created as a panel, and the panel participants are
identified. Only their streams are mixed. identified. Only their streams are mixed.
After the end of the presentation the session chair changes the After the end of the presentation, the session chair changes the
conference type to normal and now streams from all participants may conference type to normal, and now streams from all participants may
be mixed. Alternatively a floor control protocol can be used. The be mixed. Alternatively, a floor control protocol can be used. The
chair can grant the right to speak by adding the participant, whose chair can grant the right to speak by adding the participant, whose
turn it is to ask a question, to the conference mix. turn it is to ask a question, to the conference mix.
4.6. Presence-enabled ad-hoc conference 4.6. Presence-Enabled Ad Hoc Conference
A presence-enabled ad-hoc conference, sometimes described as "walkie A presence-enabled ad hoc conference, sometimes described as "walkie
talkie" service, is a scenario in which a participant sends media to talkie" service, is a scenario in which a participant sends media to
the other participants of the conference after receiving a the other participants of the conference after receiving a
confirmation of the other participants' availability. For example, a confirmation of the other participants' availability. For example, a
participant presses a talk button, which checks the presence of the participant presses a talk button, which checks the presence of the
participants to see if they are available for communication. If they participants to see if they are available for communication. If they
are, a confirmation tone is played and the participant can then talk, are, a confirmation tone is played, and the participant can then
which results in the media being sent to the other participants in talk; as a result, the media is sent to the other participants in the
the conference. These types of conferences tend to be long lived, conference. These types of conferences tend to be long lived, hence
hence the need for presence to ensure that the other participants are the need for presence to ensure that the other participants are still
still available. The ad-hoc nature of the conference means that the available. The ad hoc nature of the conference means that the
participant list can be changed at any time. Floor control can be participant list can be changed at any time. Floor control can be
used to allow other participants to speak, as the conference is used to allow other participants to speak, as the conference is
usually half-duplex in nature. usually half-duplex in nature.
4.7. Group chat text conferencing 4.7. Group Chat Text Conferencing
Group chat is a common scenario for text messaging in which a Group chat is a common scenario for text messaging in which a
participant joins (or enters) a chat room in which text messages from participant joins (or enters) a chat room in which text messages from
participants are rendered in a single window and attributed to the participants are rendered in a single window and attributed to the
participant that sent the message. Changes in conference membership participant that sent the message. Changes in conference membership
are often announced in the text window itself (e.g. "Alice has just are often announced in the text window itself (e.g., "Alice has just
entered the room. Bob has just departed."). Note that a real-time entered the room. Bob has just departed."). Note that a real-time
transcription/closed captioning service can provide a similar window transcription/closed captioning service can provide a similar window
in which audio media is converted into interactive text. "Nick in which audio media is converted into interactive text. "Nicknames"
names" or aliases are often chosen by participants or assigned by the or aliases are often chosen by participants or assigned by the
Conferencing System and used as handles within the room. Conferencing System and used as handles within the room.
4.8. Interactive text 4.8. Interactive Text
Interactive text is using RTP to carry text one character at a time Interactive text uses RTP to carry text one character at a time,
providing real-time interactivity, as described in RFC2793[2]. The providing real-time interactivity, as described in RFC 4103 [2]. The
interactive text session may be the main conference itself, or it may interactive text session may be the main conference itself, or it may
be used in conjunction with other media types. Interactive text may be used in conjunction with other media types. Interactive text may
be used to represent the audio in the conference using some be used to represent the audio in the conference using some
translation services. There can be more than one such stream where translation services. There can be more than one such stream where
each text stream is in a different language. These text streams may each text stream is in a different language. These text streams may
be used as subtitles to the audio stream. The translation from to be used as subtitles to the audio stream. The translation from to
text to speech and back is done by transcoders. Those transcoder text to speech and back is done by transcoders. These transcoders
have similar functionality to transcoders between different audio or have similar functionality to transcoders between different audio or
video algorithms. video algorithms.
The conference participants should be able to select to receive those The conference participants should be able to select to receive text
text streams with the conference audio or without it. streams with the conference audio or those without it.
4.9. Moderated group chat 4.9. Moderated Group Chat
A moderated group chat scenario for text messaging is similar to A moderated group chat scenario for text messaging is similar to
group chat but with all text messages sent to the group being group chat, but all text messages sent to the group are filtered/
filtered/approved by a moderator. Note that the moderator can be a approved by a moderator. Note that the moderator can be a human or
human or an application. The moderator also often has the ability to an application. The moderator also often has the ability to remove
remove participants and provide feedback on their submissions (e.g. participants and provide feedback on their submissions (e.g., provide
provide warnings before removal). warnings before removal).
4.10. Text sidebars 4.10. Text Sidebars
Interactive text or instant messaging sidebars are perhaps the most Interactive text or instant messaging sidebars are perhaps the most
common sidebars in conferences today. Often the text sessions are common sidebars in conferences today. Often the text sessions are
separate from the conference. However, there are some advantages to separate from the conference. However, there are some advantages to
having text sessions be a sidebar and as a result a part of the main having text sessions be a sidebar and as a result a part of the main
conference. For example, a conference which is providing anonymity/ conference. For example, a conference that is providing anonymity/
aliases to participants can also provide anonymous/alias sidebars. A aliases to participants can also provide anonymous/alias sidebars. A
text sidebar can also benefit from other security/logging/recording text sidebar can also benefit from other security/logging/recording
services provided by the Conferencing System. services provided by the Conferencing System.
Another use of a text sidebar is a text-only conversation/discussion Another use of a text sidebar is a text-only conversation/discussion
between two or more conference participants who at the same time are between two or more conference participants who are following the
following the main conference. main conference at the same time.
4.11. Conference announcements 4.11. Conference Announcements
The conference moderator may be able to play announcements to all the The conference moderator may be able to play announcements to all the
conference participants. The announcement may be pre-recorded or conference participants. An announcement may be prerecorded or
composed by the moderator before sending them. The announcements may composed by the moderator before it is sent. The announcements may
be text, audio or audio visual. An example is a conference with be text, audio, or audio-visual. An example is a conference with
several audio break-out sessions going on. At some point in the several audio break-out sessions going on. At some point, the
time, the moderator wants to record an audio message like "in 5 moderator wants to record an audio message like "In 5 minutes,
minutes, everyone please come back to the main meeting" and then play everyone please come back to the main meeting" and then play that
that message to all of the breakout sessions. message to all the breakout sessions.
5. Security Considerations 5. Security Considerations
Conferences generally have authorization rules about who may or may Conferences generally have authorization rules about who may or may
not join a conference, what type of media may or may not be used, not join a conference, what type of media may or may not be used,
etc. This information, sometimes called the conference policy or etc. This information, sometimes called the conference policy or
common conference information, is used by the Conferencing System to common conference information, is used by the Conferencing System to
admit or deny participation in a conference. For the conference admit or deny participation in a conference. For the conference
policy to be implemented, the Conferencing System needs to be able to policy to be implemented, the Conferencing System needs to be able to
authenticate potential participants. The methods used depend on the authenticate potential participants. The methods used depend on the
signaling protocols used by the conference. This can include a signaling protocols used by the conference. This can include a
challenge/response mechanism, certificates, shared secret, asserted challenge/response mechanism, certificates, shared secret, asserted
identity, etc. These conference-specific security requirements are identity, etc.
discussed further in the XCON requirements and framework documents.
6. IANA Considerations Conferences often require that their content be confidential. In
addition, secure authorization of participants is incomplete if
access to the media can be gained by unauthorized participants.
Functions for securing the media and for key management and
distribution to authorized participants need to be provided by the
Conferencing System. In some cases, the functions used for
participant authorization can be leveraged for this purpose.
There are no IANA considerations associated with this specification. Privacy is an important aspect of conferencing. Users may wish to
join a conference without anyone knowing that they have joined, in
order to silently listen in. In other applications, a participant
may wish just to hide their identity from other participants, but
otherwise let them know of their presence. These functions need to
be provided by the Conferencing System.
7. Acknowledgements These conference-specific security requirements are discussed further
in the XCON framework document.
6. Acknowledgements
Thanks to Brian Rosen for contributing conferencing scenarios. Thanks to Brian Rosen for contributing conferencing scenarios.
Thanks to Alan Johnston for going over the document and adding some Thanks to Alan Johnston for going over the document and adding some
more scenarios; to Keith Lantz, Mary Barnes and Dave Morgan for more scenarios; to Keith Lantz, Mary Barnes, and Dave Morgan for
carefully reading the document. carefully reading the document.
8. Informative References 7. Informative References
[1] Rosenberg, J., "A Framework for Conferencing with the Session [1] Rosenberg, J., "A Framework for Conferencing with the Session
Initiation Protocol", Initiation Protocol (SIP)", RFC 4353, February 2006.
draft-ietf-sipping-conferencing-framework-04 (work in progress),
October 2003.
[2] Hellstrom, G., "RTP Payload for Text Conversation", RFC 2793, [2] Hellstrom, G. and P. Jones, "RTP Payload for Text Conversation",
May 2000. RFC 4103, June 2005.
[3] Barnes, M., Boulton, C., and O. Levin, "A Framework and Data [3] Barnes, M., "A Framework and Data Model for Centralized
Model for Centralized Conferencing", Conferencing", Work in Progress, June 2006.
draft-barnes-xcon-framework-02 (work in progress),
February 2005.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Roni Even Roni Even
Polycom Polycom
94 Derech Em Hamoshavot 94 Derech Em Hamoshavot
Petach Tikva 49130 Petach Tikva 49130
Israel Israel
Email: roni.even@polycom.co.il EMail: roni.even@polycom.co.il
Nermeen Ismail Nermeen Ismail
Cisco Systems, Inc. Cisco Systems, Inc.
170 West Tasman Drive 170 West Tasman Drive
San Jose 95134 San Jose 95134
CA USA CA USA
Email: nismail@cisco.com EMail: nismail@cisco.com
Intellectual Property Statement Full Copyright Statement
Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2006).
This document is subject to the rights, licenses and restrictions
contained in BCP 78, and except as set forth therein, the authors
retain all their rights.
This document and the information contained herein are provided on an
"AS IS" basis and THE CONTRIBUTOR, THE ORGANIZATION HE/SHE REPRESENTS
OR IS SPONSORED BY (IF ANY), THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE INTERNET
ENGINEERING TASK FORCE DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED,
INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE
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Disclaimer of Validity Acknowledgement
This document and the information contained herein are provided on an
"AS IS" basis and THE CONTRIBUTOR, THE ORGANIZATION HE/SHE REPRESENTS
OR IS SPONSORED BY (IF ANY), THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE INTERNET
ENGINEERING TASK FORCE DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED,
INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE
INFORMATION HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED
WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
Copyright Statement
Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2005). This document is subject
to the rights, licenses and restrictions contained in BCP 78, and
except as set forth therein, the authors retain all their rights.
Acknowledgment
Funding for the RFC Editor function is currently provided by the Funding for the RFC Editor function is provided by the IETF
Internet Society. Administrative Support Activity (IASA).
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