draft-ietf-xcon-floor-control-req-00.txt   draft-ietf-xcon-floor-control-req-01.txt 
Transport Area H. Schulzrinne Transport Area P. Koskelainen
Internet-Draft X. Wu Internet-Draft Nokia
Expires: July 8, 2004 Columbia University Expires: January 17, 2005 J. Ott
P. Koskelainen
Nokia
J. Ott
Uni Bremen TZI Uni Bremen TZI
January 8, 2004 H. Schulzrinne
X. Wu
Columbia University
July 19, 2004
Requirements for Floor Control Protocol Requirements for Floor Control Protocol
draft-ietf-xcon-floor-control-req-00 draft-ietf-xcon-floor-control-req-01.txt
Status of this Memo Status of this Memo
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Abstract Abstract
This document defines the requirements for floor control in a Floor control is a means to manage joint or exclusive access to
multi-party conference environment. shared resource in a (multiparty) conferencing environment. Thereby,
floor control complements other functions -- such as conference and
media session setup, conference policy manipulation, and media
control -- that are realized by other protocols. This document
defines the requirements for a floor control protocol for multiparty
conferences in the context of an existing framework.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2. Conventions Used in This Document . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2. Conventions Used in This Document . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
4. Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4. Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
5. Integration with Conferencing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 5. Integration with Conferencing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
6. Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 6. Assumptions about a Conference Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
7. Open Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 7. Floor Control Protocol Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
8. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 7.1 Communication between Participant and Server . . . . . . . 10
Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 7.2 Communicaton between Chair and Server . . . . . . . . . . 11
Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 7.3 General Protocol Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 8. Open Issue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . 15 9. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
10. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
10.1 Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
10.2 Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . 17
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
Conference applications often have shared resources such as the right Conference applications often have shared resources such as the right
to talk, input access to a limited-bandwidth video channel, or a to talk, input access to a limited-bandwidth video channel, or a
pointer or input focus in a shared application. pointer or input focus in a shared application.
In many cases, it is desirable to be able to control who can provide In many cases, it is desirable to be able to control who can provide
input (send/write/control, depending on the application) to the input (send/write/control, depending on the application) to the
shared resource. shared resource.
Floor control enables applications or users to gain safe and mutually Floor control enables applications or users to gain safe and mutually
exclusive or non-exclusive input access to the shared object or exclusive or non-exclusive input access to the shared object or
resource. The floor is an individual temporary access or manipulation resource. The floor is an individual temporary access or
permission for a specific shared resource (or group of resources) manipulation permission for a specific shared resource (or group of
[7]. resources) [8].
Floor control is an optional feature for conferencing applications. Floor control is an optional feature for conferencing applications.
SIP [2] conferencing applications may also decide not to support this SIP [2] conferencing applications may also decide not to support this
feature at all. Two-party applications may use floor control outside feature at all. Two-party applications may use floor control outside
conferencing, although the usefulness of this kind of scenario is conferencing, although the usefulness of this kind of scenario is
limited. Floor control may be used together with conference policy limited. Floor control may be used together with conference policy
control protocol (CPCP) [8], or it may be used as independent control protocol (CPCP) [9], or it may be used as independent
standalone protocol, e.g. with SIP but without CPCP. standalone protocol, e.g. with SIP but without CPCP.
Floor control has been studied extensively over the years, (e.g. [9], Floor control has been studied extensively over the years, (e.g.
[7], [6]) therefore earlier work can be leveraged here. [10], [8], [7]) therefore earlier work can be leveraged here.
The present document describes the requirements for a floor control The present document describes the requirements for a floor control
protocol. As a requirements specification, the document makes no protocol. As a requirements specification, the document makes no
assumptions about the later implementation of the respective assumptions about the later implementation of the respective
requirements as parts of one or more protocols and about the entities requirements as parts of one or more protocols and about the entities
implementing it/them and their roles. implementing it/them and their roles.
This document may be used in conjunction with other documents, such This document may be used in conjunction with other documents, such
as the Conferencing framework document [3]. In particular, when as the Conferencing framework document [3]. In particular, when
speaking about a floor control server, this entity may be identical speaking about a floor control server, this entity may be identical
skipping to change at page 5, line 9 skipping to change at page 5, line 9
2. Conventions Used in This Document 2. Conventions Used in This Document
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119. document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119.
3. Terminology 3. Terminology
This document uses the definitions from [3]. This document uses the definitions from [3].
Additional definitions: The following additional definitions apply:
Floor: A permission to temporarily access or manipulate a specific Floor: A permission to temporarily access or manipulate a specific
shared resource or set of resources. shared resource or set of resources.
Conference owner: A privileged user who controls the conference, Conference owner: A privileged user who controls the conference,
creates floors and assigns and deassigns floor chairs. The creates floors and assigns and deassigns floor chairs. The
conference owner does not have to be a member in a conference. conference owner does not have to be a member in a conference.
Floor chair: A user (or an entity) who manages one floor (grants, Floor chair: A user (or an entity) who manages one floor (grants,
denies or revokes a floor). The floor chair does not have to be a denies or revokes a floor). The floor chair does not have to be a
skipping to change at page 6, line 13 skipping to change at page 6, line 13
participants who currently hold the floor. participants who currently hold the floor.
4. Model 4. Model
The model for floor control comprises three logical entities: a The model for floor control comprises three logical entities: a
single floor control server, one or more floor chairs (moderators), single floor control server, one or more floor chairs (moderators),
and any number of regular conference participants. and any number of regular conference participants.
A floor control protocol is used to convey the floor control messages A floor control protocol is used to convey the floor control messages
among the floor chairs (moderators) of the conference, the floor among the floor chairs (moderators) of the conference, the floor
control server, and the participants of the conference. A centralized control server, and the participants of the conference. A
architecture is assumed in which all messages go via one point, the centralized architecture is assumed in which all messages go via one
floor control server. Processing (granting or rejecting) floor point, the floor control server. Processing (granting or rejecting)
control requests is done by the one or more floor chairs or by the floor control requests is done by the one or more floor chairs or by
server itself, depending on the policy. the server itself, depending on the policy.
Floor requests from the participants are received by the floor Floor requests from the participants are received by the floor
control server and kept in an -- at the level of the floor control control server and kept in an -- at the level of the floor control
protocol -- "unordered" floor request set. The current floor holders protocol -- floor request set (i.e. are not ordered in any
are reflected in a current floor holder set. Floor chairs are particular fashion). The current floor holders are reflected in a
capable of manipulating both sets to e.g. grant, revoke, reject, and current floor holder set. Floor chairs are capable of manipulating
pass the floor. both sets to e.g. grant, revoke, reject, and pass the floor.
The order in which requests are processed, whether they are granted The order in which requests are processed, whether they are granted
or rejected, how many participants obtain a floor simultaneously, is or rejected, how many participants obtain a floor simultaneously, is
determined by a higher layer application operating on these sets and determined by a higher layer application operating on these sets and
is not confined by the floor control protocol. is not confined by the floor control protocol.
A floor is associated with one or more media sessions. The A floor is associated with one or more media sessions. The
centralized conference server manages the floors and thus controls centralized conference server manages the floors and thus controls
access to the media sessions. There are two aspects to this: 1) The access to the media sessions. There are two aspects to this: 1) The
server maintains and distributes consistent state information about server maintains and distributes consistent state information about
skipping to change at page 7, line 36 skipping to change at page 7, line 36
chair or floor parameters. chair or floor parameters.
The floor chair just controls the access to the floor(s), according The floor chair just controls the access to the floor(s), according
to the conference policy. to the conference policy.
A floor control server is a separate logical entity, typically A floor control server is a separate logical entity, typically
co-located with focus and/or conference policy server. Therefore, co-located with focus and/or conference policy server. Therefore,
the floor control server can interact with focus, conference Policy the floor control server can interact with focus, conference Policy
Server and media servers as needed. Communication mechanisms between Server and media servers as needed. Communication mechanisms between
floor control server and other central conferencing entities are not floor control server and other central conferencing entities are not
defined at this point. within the scope of the floor control protocol requirements described
in this document.
6. Requirements 6. Assumptions about a Conference Policy
REQ-1: It MUST be possible to announce to participants that a The floor control protocol is supposed to be used to manage access to
particular media session (or group of media sessions) is shared resources in the context of a conference. It is up to this
floor-controlled. conference -- more precisely: its conference policy [4] -- to define
the rules for the operation of the floor control protocol.
Furthermore, a conference policy control protocol [4] may define
mechanisms to alter those rules during the course of a conference.
This section briefly outlines the assumptions made by a floor control
protocol about the conference policy and means for its modification.
(This is a requirement for session protocol, i.e. SIP. SDP's "a" line The conference policy is expected to define the rules for floor
offers one possible indication.) control -- which particularly implies that it is not the
responsibility of the floor control protocol to establish or
communicate those rules.
REQ-2: It MUST be possible to group several media sessions in a In general, it is assumed that the conference policy also defines who
conference together so that one floor applies to the group. is allowed to create, change and remove a floor in a conference.
REQ-3: It MUST be possible to define who is allowed to create, change Conference participants and floor chairs should be able to get and
and remove a floor in a conference. We assume that the conference set floor-related parameters. The conference policy may restrict who
owner always has this privilege and may also authorize other may access or alter which parameters. Note that not all parameters
entities, via the conference policy. maintained for a floor are also interpreted by the floor control
protocol (e.g. floor policy descriptions may be stored associated
with a floor but may be interpreted by a higher layer application).
Note also that changes to the floor control policy outside the scope
of the floor control protocol and e.g. to be carried out by a
conference policy control protocol.
(This is a requirement for CPCP rather than an FCP requirement.) (For example, it may be useful to see who the floor chair is, what
kind of policy is in use, time limits, number of simultanous floor
holders and current floor holder.)
REQ-4: It MUST be possible to use a chair-controlled floor policy in These following requirements on a conference policy related to floor
which the floor control server notifies the floor chair and waits for control are identified in [4]:
the chair to make a decision. This enables the chair to fully control
who has the floor. The server MAY forward all requests immediately to
the floor chair, or it may do filtering and send only occasional
notifications to the chair.
REQ-5: Participants MUST be able to request (claim) a floor. REQ-F1: It MUST be possible to define whether floor control is in use
or not.
REQ-6: It SHOULD be possible for a user requesting a floor to give REQ-F2: It MUST be possible to define the algorithm to be used in
additional information about the request, such as the topic of the granting the floor. (Note: Example algorithms might be e.g.
question for an audio floor. In some scenarios, the floor chair may moderator-controlled, FCFS, random.)
use this information when granting the floor to the user, or when
making manipulation to the floor sets at the server.
REQ-7: It MUST be possible to grant a floor to a participant. Note: it must be possible to use an automated floor policy where the
floor control server decides autonomously about granting, and
rejecting floor requests as well as revoking the floor. It must also
be possible to use a chair-controlled floor policy in which the floor
control server notifies the floor chair and waits for the chair to
make a decision. This enables the chair to fully control who has the
floor. The server MAY forward all requests immediately to the floor
chair, or it may do filtering and send only occasional notifications
to the chair.
REQ-8: A participant MUST be informed that she has been granted the REQ-F3: It MUST be possible to define how many users can have the
floor. floor at the same time.
REQ-9: It MUST be possible to reject a participant's floor request. REQ-F4: It MUST be possible to have one floor for one or more media
types.
REQ-10: A participant MUST be informed that his floor request has REQ-F5: It MUST be possible to have multiple floors in a conference.
been rejected.
REQ-11: The floor chair or moderator MUST be able to revoke a floor REQ-F6: It MUST be possible to define whether a floor is
from (one of) its current holder(s). moderator-controlled or not.
REQ-12: A participant MUST be informed that the floor was revoked REQ-F7: If the floor is moderator-controlled, it MUST be possible to
from her. assign and replace the floor moderator.
REQ-13: A participant SHOULD be informed that her floor request is 7. Floor Control Protocol Requirements
pending and will be processed later.
REQ-14: A floor holder MUST be able to release a floor. This section covers the requirements on a floor control protocol.
The requirements are grouped as follows: 1) floor control protocol
between participant and server; 2) floor control protocol between
floor chairs and server; 3) floor control server management, and 4)
general protocol requirements.
REQ-15: It SHOULD be possible to get and set various floor related 7.1 Communication between Participant and Server
parameters. Note that not all parameters maintained for a floor are
also interpreted by the floor control protocol (e.g. floor policy
descriptions may be stored associated with a floor but may be
interpreted by a higher layer application.
(For example, it may be useful to see who the floor chair is, what REQ-PS-1: Participants MUST be able to request (claim) a floor.
kind of policy is in use, time limits, number of simultanous floor
holders and current floor holder.)
REQ-16: It MUST be possible for a user with appropriate conference REQ-PS-2: It SHOULD be possible for a participant requesting a floor
privileges to change the chair for a floor. to give additional information about the request, such as the topic
of the question for an audio floor. Note: In some scenarios, the
floor control server or the floor chair may use this information when
granting the floor to the user, or when making manipulation to the
floor sets at the server.
(This is rather a requirement for the conference policy control REQ-PS-3: It MUST be possible for a participant to modify (e.g.
protocol than for the floor control protocol.) cancel) a previously placed floor request.
REQ-17: Bandwidth and terminal limitations SHOULD be taken into REQ-PS-4: It SHOULD be possible for a participant to initiate a floor
account in order to ensure that floor control can be efficiently used control operation (e.g. floor request, release) on behalf of another
in mobile environments. participant (third-party floor control) provided that he is
authorized to do so.
It should be noted that efficient communication by means of minimal REQ-PS-5: A participant MUST be informed that she has been granted
sized messages may contradict the desire to express reasons for the floor.
requesting a floor (as per REQ-6) along with other information.
Therefore, a floor control protocol SHOULD be designed in a way that
it allow for expressive as well as minimal messaging, as (negotiable)
configuration option and/or selectable on a per-message basis.
REQ-18: Conference members and the chair MUST have the capability to REQ-PS-6: A participant MUST be informed that his floor request has
learn who has the floor and who has requested the floor. (Note: been rejected.
Conference policy may prevent members seeing this.)
REQ-19: It MUST be possible to notify conference members and chair REQ-PS-7: A participant MUST be informed that the floor was revoked
about the floorholder changes and when a new floor request is being from her.
made. (Note: Conference policy may prevent members seeing this.)
REQ-20: There MAY be operations to manipulate the request set REQ-PS-8: A participant SHOULD be informed that her floor request is
available for floor chair(s). pending and will be processed later.
7. Open Issues REQ-PS-9: A floor holder MUST be able to release a floor.
- Support for privacy, e.g. the following: floor claimer must be able REQ-PS-10: It MUST be possible to notify conference participants
to indicate privacy preference, and the ability to hide floor chair's (changes to) the floor holder(s)
identity.
Preliminary proposal: REQ-PS-11: It MUST be possible to notify conference participants when
a new floor request is being made.
RRQ-a: It MUST be possible for the floor requester to indicate her RRQ-PS-12: It MUST be possible for a floor requester to request
privacy preference. The privacy preferences MUST include the privacy for claiming the floor.
following options:
anonymous: the participants (including the floor chair) cannot see anonymous: the participants (including the floor chair) cannot see
the floor requester's identity. The floor chair grant the floor based the floor requester's identity. The floor chairs grant the floor
on the claim id and the topic of the claim. based on the claim id and the topic of the claim.
known to the floor chair: only the floor chair is able to see the known to the floor chair: only the floor chair is able to see the
floor requester's identity; all other participants do not obtain this floor requester's identity; all other participants do not obtain this
information. information.
public: all the participants can see the floor requester's identity. public: all the participants can see the floor requester's identity.
RRQ-b: It MUST be possible to hide the identity of a floor chair from REQ-PS-13: It MUST be possible for a participant to request privacy
a subset or all participants of a conference. for holding the floor along with a floor request. Note that identity
information about the particpant may become available to others
through different means (e.g. application/media protocols or the
mmedia itself such as the voice).
8. Acknowledgements 7.2 Communicaton between Chair and Server
REQ-CS-1: It MUST be possible to inform the floor chairs, if present,
about a participant's floor request.
It SHOULD be possible to convey additional information the
participant may have provided along with her request.
It MUST be possible to hide the requesting participant's identity
from the chair, i.e. not include this identity information in the
floor request.
REQ-CS-2: It MUST be possible to grant a floor to a participant.
REQ-CS-3: It MUST be possible to reject a participant's floor
request.
REQ-CS-4: The floor chair MUST be able to revoke a floor from (one
of) its current holder(s). Note that the floor chair may also remove
pending floor requests from the request set (by rejecting them).
REQ-CS-5: It MUST be possible to notify floor chairs about changes to
the floor holder(s)
REQ-CS-6: There SHOULD be operations to manipulate the request set
available for floor chair(s). Such request set SHOULD at least
include creating, maintaining, and re-ordering floor requests a queue
and clearing the floor control queue.
RRQ-CS-7: It MUST be possible to hide the identity of a floor chair
from a subset or all participants of a conference.
REQ-CS-8: It MUST be possible for a newly assigned floor chair to
learn about (e.g. inquire) the existing floor request set.
7.3 General Protocol Requirements
REQ-GEN-1: Bandwidth and terminal limitations SHOULD be taken into
account in order to ensure that floor control can be efficiently used
in mobile environments.
It should be noted that efficient communication by means of minimal
sized messages may contradict the desire to express reasons for
requesting a floor along with other information. Therefore, a floor
control protocol SHOULD be designed in a way that it allow for
expressive as well as minimal messaging, as (negotiable)
configuration option and/or selectable on a per-message basis.
REQ-GEN-2: The floor control MUST be a reliable client-server
protocol. Hence, it MUST provide a positive response indicating that
a request has been received or an error response if an error has
occurred.
REQ-GEN-3: It MUST be possible for the floor control server to
authenticate participants and chairs.
REQ-GEN-4: It MUST be possible for the participants and chairs to
authenticate the server.
REQ-GEN-5: It MUST be possible to ensure message integrity between
participants and chairs and the floor control server.
REQ-GEN-6: It MUST be possible to ensure privacy of messages
exchanged between participants and chairs and the floor control
server.
8. Open Issue
Conferences can be cascaded, such that a participant of the
conference can be a conference in its own right. What implications
(if any) does this have on floor control and the requirements on a
floor control protocol?
9. Acknowledgements
The authors would like to thank IETF conferencing design team and The authors would like to thank IETF conferencing design team and
Marcus Brunner, Keith Drage, Sanjoy Sen, Eric Burger, Brian Rosen, Keith Drage, Marcus Brunner, Sanjoy Sen, Eric Burger, Brian Rosen,
and Nermeen Ismail for their feedback. and Nermeen Ismail for their feedback.
Normative References 10. References
10.1 Normative References
[1] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement [1] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement
Levels", RFC 2119, BCD 14, March 1997. Levels", RFC 2119, BCD 14, March 1997.
[2] Rosenberg et al., J., "SIP: Session Initiation Protocol", RFC [2] Rosenberg et al., J., "SIP: Session Initiation Protocol", RFC
3261, June 2002. 3261, June 2002.
[3] Rosenberg, J., "A Framework for Conferencing with the Session [3] Rosenberg, J., "A Framework for Conferencing with the Session
Initiation Protocol", Initiation Protocol",
draft-rosenberg-sipping-conferencing-framework-01 (work in draft-ietf-sipping-conferencing-framework-02.txt (work in
progress), February 2003. progress), June 2004.
Informative References 10.2 Informative References
[4] Koskelainen, P., Schulzrinne, H. and X. Wu, "Additional [4] Koskelainen, P. and H. Khartabil, "Additional Requirements to
Requirements to Conferencing", October 2002. Conferencing", January 2004.
[5] Wu, X., Schulzrinne, H. and P. Koskelainen, "Use of SIP and SOAP [5] Wu, X., Schulzrinne, H. and P. Koskelainen, "Use of SIP and
for conference floor control", January 2003. SOAP for conference floor control", January 2003.
[6] Koskelainen, P., Schulzrinne, H. and X. Wu, "A sip-based [6] Camarillo, G., Ott, J. and K. Drage, "", June 2004.
[7] Koskelainen, P., Schulzrinne, H. and X. Wu, "A sip-based
conference control framework", Nossdav'2002 Miami Beach, May conference control framework", Nossdav'2002 Miami Beach, May
2002. 2002.
[7] Dommel, H. and J. Garcia-Luna-Aceves, "Floor control for [8] Dommel, H. and J. Garcia-Luna-Aceves, "Floor control for
activity coordination in networked multimedia applications", activity coordination in networked multimedia applications",
Proc. of 2nd Asian-pacific Conference on Communications APPC, Proc. of 2nd Asian-pacific Conference on Communications APPC,
Osaka Japan, June 1995. Osaka Japan, June 1995.
[8] Koskelainen, P. and H. Khartabil, "An Extensible Markup Language [9] Koskelainen, P. and H. Khartabil, "An Extensible Markup
(XML) Configuration Access Protocol (XCAP) Usage for Conference Language (XML) Configuration Access Protocol (XCAP) Usage for
Policy Manipulation", draft-koskelainen-xcon-xcap-cpcp-usage-01 Conference Policy Manipulation",
(work in progress), October 2003. draft-koskelainen-xcon-xcap-cpcp-usage-02.txt (work in
progress), February 2004.
[9] Borman, C., Kutchner, D., Ott, J. and D. Trossen, "Simple [10] Borman, C., Kutscher, D., Ott, J. and D. Trossen, "Simple
conference control protocol service specification", conference control protocol service specification",
draft-ietf-mmusic-sccp-00 (work in progress), March 2001. draft-ietf-mmusic-sccp-00.txt (work in progress), March 2001.
Authors' Addresses Authors' Addresses
Henning Schulzrinne
Columbia University
1214 Amsterdam Avenue
New York 10027
USA
EMail: hgs@cs.columbia.edu
Xiaotao Wu
Columbia University
1214 Amsterdam Avenue
New York 10027
USA
EMail: xiaotaow@cs.columbia.edu
Petri Koskelainen Petri Koskelainen
Nokia Nokia
P.O. Box 100 (Visiokatu 1) P.O. Box 100 (Visiokatu 1)
Tampere FIN-33721 Tampere FIN-33721
Finland Finland
EMail: petri.koskelainen@nokia.com EMail: petri.koskelainen@nokia.com
Joerg Ott Joerg Ott
Uni Bremen TZI Uni Bremen TZI
Bibliothekstr. 1 Bibliothekstr. 1
Bremen D-28359 Bremen D-28359
Germany Germany
EMail: jo@tzi.uni-bremen.de EMail: jo@tzi.uni-bremen.de
Henning Schulzrinne
Columbia University
1214 Amsterdam Avenue
New York 10027
USA
EMail: hgs@cs.columbia.edu
Xiaotao Wu
Columbia University
1214 Amsterdam Avenue
New York 10027
USA
EMail: xiaotaow@cs.columbia.edu
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